10 July 2012

enver hoxha Final years

Enver Hoxha in 1983.
Ramiz Alia, the chosen successor of Hoxha after his death in 1985.
A new Constitution was decided upon by the Seventh Congress of the Albanian Party of Labour on 1–7 November 1976. According to Hoxha, "The old Constitution was the Constitution of the building of the foundations of socialism, whereas the new Constitution will be the Constitution of the complete construction of a socialist society."[105] Self-reliance was now stressed more than ever. Citizens were encouraged to train in the use of weapons, and this activity was also taught in schools. This was to encourage the creation of quickpartisans.[106] Borrowing and foreign investment were banned under Article 26 of the Constitution, which read: "The granting of concessions to, and the creation of foreign economic and financial companies and other institutions or ones formed jointly with bourgeois and revisionist capitalist monopolies and states as well as obtaining credits from them are prohibited in the People's Socialist Republic of Albania."[107]
No country whatsoever, big or small, can build socialism by taking credits and aid from the bourgeoisie and the revisionists or by integrating its economy into the world system of capitalist economies. Any such linking of the economy of a socialist country with the economy of bourgeois or revisionist countries opens the doors to the actions of the economic laws of capitalism and the degeneration of the socialist order. This is the road of betrayal and the restoration of capitalism, which the revisionist cliques have pursued and are pursuing.
—Enver Hoxha[108]
Albania was very poor and backward by European standards and it had the lowest standard of living in Europe.[109] As a result of economic self-sufficiency, Albania had a minimal foreign debt. In 1983, Albania imported goods worth $280 million but exported goods worth $290 million, producing a trade surplus of $10 million.[110]
The Enver Hoxha Museum, now since renamed with references to Hoxha removed.
Fall of Hoxha's statue in 1991
In 1981, Hoxha ordered the execution of several party and government officials in a new purge. Prime Minister Mehmet Shehu was reported to have committed suicide in December 1981 and was subsequently condemned as a "traitor" to Albania and he was also accused of operating in the service of multiple intelligence agencies. It is generally believed that he was either killed or shot himself during a power struggle or over differing foreign policy matters with Hoxha.[111] Hoxha also wrote a large assortment of books during this period, resulting in over 65 volumes of collected works, condensed into six volumes of selected works.[112]
Later, Hoxha withdrew into semi-retirement due to failing health, having suffered a heart attack in 1973 from which he never fully recovered. He turned most state functions over to Ramiz Alia. In his final days he was a wheelchair user and was suffering from diabetes, which he had suffered from since 1948, and cerebral ischemia, which he had suffered from since 1983.[113] Hoxha's death on 11 April 1985 left Albania with a legacy of isolation and fear of the outside world. Despite some economic progress made by Hoxha,[114] the country was in economic stagnation; Albania had been the poorest European country throughout much of the Cold War period. As of the early 21st century, very little of Hoxha's legacy is still in place in today's Albania since the transition to democracy in 1992.


Enver Hoxha with his wife, Nexhmije Hoxha
Former residence of Enver Hoxha in the secluded area of Blloku in Tirana
The surname Hoxha is the Albanian variant of Hodja, a title given to his ancestors due to their efforts to teach Albanians about Islam.[115] In addition, among the population he was widely known by his nickname of Dulla, a short form for the Muslim name Abdullah stemming from his former Muslim roots.
Enver Hoxha's parents were Halil and Gjylihan (Gjylo) Hoxha, and Hoxha had three sisters named Fahrije, Haxhire and Sanije. Hysen Hoxha ([hyˈsɛn ˈhɔdʒa]) was Enver Hoxha's uncle and was a militant who campaigned vigorously for the independence of Albania, which occurred when Enver was four years old. His grandfather Beqir was involved in the Gjirokastër section of the League of Prizren.[116]
Enver Hoxha's son, Sokol Hoxha, was the CEO of the Albanian Post and Telecommunication service, and is married to Liliana Hoxha.[117] The later democratic president of Albania Sali Berisha was often seen socializing with Sokol Hoxha and other close relatives of leading communist figures in Albania.[118]
Hoxha's daughter, Pranvera, is an architect. Along with her husband, Klement Kolaneci, she designed the former Enver Hoxha Museumin Tirana, a white-tiled pyramid. The museum opened in 1988, three years after her father's death. The building now houses the International Cultural Centre.[119]

[edit]Assassination attempts

Banda Mustafaj was a group of 4 Albanian emigres led by Xhevdet Mustafa who wanted to assassinate Enver Hoxha in 1982. The plan failed and two of its members were killed and 1 arrested.[120][121] It marked the only real effort to kill Hoxha.[122][123]


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