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14 July 2012

Contoh Makalah Bahasa Inggris

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Problem
English is the first foreign language in our country, roomates is taught from Elementary level to University level. English is also intensively used in international communication, in written as well as in spoken communication. In addition, many books of science, technology, art and other published issues are written in English.
In English language, there are skills to be mastered integrated such as: speaking, listening, reading, and Writing. As Haycraft states (1978:8) that there are various skills in mastering of language: respective skills, listening (understanding the spoken language), reading (understanding the written language), andproductive-speaking and writing skills.
The researcher chooses student's composing narrative writing as a material of narrative writing. By Assumption that the composition is the result of students' product that can be known Cleary. Sofyan (1999:86) stated that Narrative is a story roomates is connected with events based on the plot. Then why the teachers use narrative text, it is Because the narrative as a story of human experience, so that the students arrange Easily the composition. As Keraf (1991:136) states that "Tells Narrative as a story or describe an action in the past time Clearly, so narrative is tried to answer the question: what had happened?". Narrative as a story, so it is should have the elements that can make-story more interesting to the reader such as a conflict and conclusion of the story.
The students must have good communication in both oral and written form. Oral form is that speaking and listening, and written form is that writing in reading. The students have Difficulties in composing narrative writing. Some of them feel Difficulties in composing narrative writing such as: stuck to get diction, getting ideas, and ordering the words.
Based on the problem above, the students must know some strategies in composing narrative writing such as: making an outline, using picture, using dictionary, sharing with friends, using the tools (audio, audio-visual) or learning's aids (a guide), . As Brown (2000:113) stated that strategies are specific methods of approaching a problem or task, modes of operation for Achieving a particular end, planned designs for controlling and manipulating certain information. Because of that the students should choose a good strategy to compose narrative writing. As Chamot in Masdari (2005:5) says learning strategies are techniques approaches, or deliberate the learning and recall of both linguistic and contains information.
From the above explanation, we can infer that each student has certain tendency and capability in using certain learning strategies, therefore the use of various learning strategies influenced by their family background, experience, and character. In order words, the strategy that is useful to student might not be useful to others. Since students have their own characteristic strategy, they will have different learning strategies that are useful and comfortable for them.
From the above explanation, the researcher will discuss about "the students' strategies in composing narrative writing" which is conducted at the second year of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa Tangerang.

The Identification of Problem
Based on the background above, the research identifies the problem as follow:
The students get Difficulties in composing narrative writing.
Inappropriate learning strategies and teaching techniques.
There are many kind of strategies roomates have done.

The Limitation of Problem
In this research the researcher limits only on strategy in composing narrative writing done by students at second year of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa Tangerang.

The Formulation of Problem
Dealing with Limitation of the problem, the researcher would like to formulate the problem as follow:
What strategies are used by the students in narrative writing at second year of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa?
What are the students' Reasons in choosing strategies at second year of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa?
How do the students' composing narrative writing at second year of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa?

The Objectives of the research
The objectives of the research could be formulated as follow:
To find out strategies used by the students at second year of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa.
Reasons To know the students in choosing a strategy at second year of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa.
To know the students ability in composing narrative writing at second year of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa.

The Uses of the Research
Theoretically 1.6.1:
1. As the references for other Researchers who are interested in teaching writing Investigating the ability by using composing narrative writing to students' composing narrative writing.
2. As the support for the theory that states roomates composing narrative writing.


Practically 1.6.2:
1 As the answer of the writer's curiosity on the teaching by using composing narrative writing to the students' and the English teachers.
2 As the information for all the teachers and the students to use strategies in composing narrative writing.


1.7 Clarification of terms
1.7.1 Writing Strategies
According to Collin (2008) state that writing strategies are deliberate, focused ways of thinking about writing.
Based on definition above, writing strategies are some of technique it can be a formal plan to write a book report, or it can be something as simple as a trick to remember how a word is spelled.
Strategy
According to Brown (2000:113) Strategies are specific methods of approaching a problem or task, modes of operation for Achieving a particular end, planned designs for controlling and manipulating certain information.
Then the strategy is as a remedy the teacher in making the system area that happened to teaching learning process. (Ahmadi: 2005: 32).
According to Chamot (1987) Often strategies are more powerful when they are used in appropriate combinations.
Based on those definitions above, strategies are any tools or tactics that learners employ to learn more Effectively and more autonomously.

Learning Strategies
According to Chamot (1987) Learning strategies are techniques approaches, or deliberate the learning and recall of both linguistic and content information. (Cited from Masdari, 2005:5)
Then learning strategies are intention behavior and thoughts used by learners during learning, so as to better help them understand learn or remember new information. (Richards. 1992:209)
Based on definition above, learning strategies are technique approaches, intention behavior used by learner during learning, so as to better help them understand learn or remember new information.

Narrative writing
As Semi in Hasani (2005:22) stated that narrative is conversation or writing with the purpose Tells about action or human experience based on the development of time.
Then According to Keraf (1991:136) states that "Tells Narrative as a story or describes an action in the past time Clearly, so narrative is tried to answer the question: what had happened?" Narrative as a story, so it is should have the element that makes the story more interesting to the reader such as a conflict and conclusion of the story.
Referring on the definitions above we conduct that narrative is a story telling about the event Consist of conflict and conclusion.

Organization of the paper
Chapter one discusses about introduction that consists of background of the problem, identification of problems, Limitation and formulation of the problem, objectives of the research, the uses of the research, clarification of terms and organization of paper
Chapter two discusses about frame of theories that Consist of the definition of strategy, the kinds of strategies, definition of learning strategies, the categories of learning strategies, definition of narrative, the characteristic of narrative, the kinds of narrative, the different between narrative and recount, definition writing strategies, plan for writing.
Chapter three discusses about methodology that Consist of research design, the place of the research, data collecting technique, a data analysis technique and analysis of the instrument.
Chapter four discusses about research result and discussion of the findings.
Chapter five discusses about Conclusions and suggestion.
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