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09 July 2012

Commercial vessels ,ship

Commercial vessels or merchant ships can be divided into three broad categories: cargo ships, passenger ships, and special-purpose ships.[45] Cargo ships transport dry and liquid cargo. Dry cargo can be transported in bulk by bulk carriers, packed directly onto a general cargo ship in break-bulk, packed in intermodal containers as aboard a container ship, or driven aboard as in roll-on roll-off ships. Liquid cargo is generally carried in bulk aboard tankers, such as oil tankers which may include both crude and finished products of oil, chemical tankers which may also carry vegetable oils other than chemicals and LPG/LNG tankers, although smaller shipments may be carried on container ships in tank containers.
Passenger ships range in size from small river ferries to very large cruise ships. This type of vessel includes ferries, which move passengers and vehicles on short trips; ocean liners, which carry passengers from one place to another; and cruise ships, which carry passengers on voyages undertaken for pleasure, visiting several places and with leisure activities on board, often returning them to the port of embarkation.
Special-purpose vessels are not used for transport but for other tasks. Examples include tugboats, pilot boats, rescue boats, cable ships, research vessels, survey vessels, and icebreakers.
Most commercial vessels have full hull-forms to maximize cargo capacity.[citation needed] Hulls are usually made of steel, although aluminum can be used on faster craft, and fiberglass on the smallest service vessels.[citation needed] Commercial vessels generally have a crew headed by a captain, with deck officers and marine engineers on larger vessels. Special-purpose vessels often have specialized crew if necessary, for example scientists aboard research vessels.
Commercial vessels are typically powered by a single propeller driven by a diesel or, less usually, gas turbine engine.[citation needed] The fastest vessels may use pump-jet engines.[citation needed]
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