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08 July 2012

Thomas Hobbes

Thomas Hobbes dari Malmesbury (lahir di Malmesbury, Wiltshire, Inggris, 5 April 1588 – meninggal di Derbyshire, Inggris, 4 Desember 1679 pada umur 91 tahun) adalah seorang filsuf Inggris yang beraliran empirisme.[1][2][3] Pandangannya yang terkenal adalah konsep manusia dari sudut pandang empirisme-materialisme, serta pandangan tentang hubungan manusia dengan sistem negara.[1][2]
Hobbes memiliki pengaruh terhadap seluruh bidang kajian moral di Inggris serta filsafat politik, khususnya melalui bukunya yang amat terkenal "Leviathan".[4] Hobbes tidak hanya terkenal di Inggris tetapi juga di Eropa Daratan.[4] Selain dikenal sebagai filsuf, Hobbes juga terkenal sebagai ahli matematika dan sarjana klasik.[4] Ia pernah menjadi guru matematika Charles II serta menerbitkan terjemahan Illiad dan Odyssey karya Homeros.[4]

Riwayat hidup

Masa awal kehidupan dan pendidikan


Hertford College, dulu bernama Magdalen Hall, tempat Hobbes menempuh studi akademis.
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) dilahirkan di Malmesbury, sebuah kota kecil yang berjarak 25 kilometer dari London.[1] Ia dilahirkan pada tanggal 15 April 1588.[5] Ketika Hobbes dilahirkan, armada Spanyol sedang menyerbu Inggris.[6] Ayah Hobbes adalah seorang pendeta di Westport, bagian dari Malmesbury.[7] Ayahnya bermasalah dengan pihak gereja sehingga melarikan diri dari kota tersebut dan meninggalkan Hobbes untuk diasuh oleh pamannya.[7]
Pada tahun 1603-1608, Hobbes belajar di Magdalen Hall, Oxford pada usia 14 tahun.[1] Menurut kesaksian pribadi Hobbes, ia tidak menyukai pelajaran fisika dan logika Aristoteles.[5] Ia lebih suka membaca mengenai eksplorasi terhadap penemuan tanah-tanah baru serta mempelajari peta-peta bumi dan bintang-bintang.[5] Karena itulah, astronomi adalah bidang sains yang mendapat perhatian dari Hobbes, dan terus digeluti oleh Hobbes.[5] Kemudian pada masa kemudian, Hobbes juga menyesali karena ia tidak mempelajari matematika saat menempuh pendidikan di Oxford.[5]

Pekerjaan di Inggris


Francis Bacon, seorang filsuf empirisme terkenal selain Hobbes. Hobbes pernah menjadi sekretaris dari Bacon.
Setelah menempuh pendidikan, Hobbes mendapat pekerjaan sebagai pengajar keluarga bangsawan, yakni keluarga Cavendish.[5] Murid Hobbes adalah William Cavendish yang merupakan pewaris keluarga tersebut.[5] Selain sebagai guru, Hobbes juga berperan sebagai sekretaris, teman, dan bendahara dari William Cavendish.[5]
Pada tahun 1614-1615, Hobbes dan William melakukan perjalanan ke Perancis dan Italia, di mana keduanya mempelajari bahasa Italia.[5] Sepulangnya ke Inggris pada tahun 1616, Cavendish berhubungan dengan Francis Bacon dan Hobbes sempat melakukan beberapa pekerjaan sekretariat untuk Bacon.[5] Bersama dengan William, Hobbes berkenalan dengan dunia politik, baik dalam pemikiran maupun praktik.[5] William pada tahun 1614 dan 1621 merupakan anggota parlemen sehingga Hobbes dipastikan turut serta dalam sidang-sidang parlemen.[5]
William Cavendish meninggal pada tahun 1628, dan saat itu Hobbes telah menyelesaikan terjemahan dari Thucydides.[5] Karya Hobbes tersebut merupakan karya ilmiah yang berharga sebab merupakan karya pertama yang merupakan terjemahan bahasa Inggris langsung dari bahasa Yunani.[5] Selain itu, di dalamnya terdapat peta dari dunia Yunani kuno yang dikumpulkan dari banyak sumber dan digambar oleh Hobbes sendiri.[5] Di dalam karya tersebut, Hobbes memperlihatkan sikapnya yang pro terhadap monarki Inggris dan tidak begitu menyukai sistem demokrasi.[5] Di dalam oto-biografinya, Hobbes mengatakan bahwa Thucydides adalah sejarawan favoritnya sebab "ia memperlihatkan betapa tidak kompetennya sistem demokrasi".[5]
Setelah kematian William, Hobbes berhenti dari pekerjaannya di keluarga Cavendish selama dua tahun.[5] Pada waktu tersebut. ia bekerja lagi sebagai guru dari anak bangsawan.[5] Pada tahun 1629 hingga 1630, Hobbes dan muridnya melakukan perjalanan ke Perancis dan Swiss.[5] Di Jenewa, selama bulan April hingga Juni tahun 1630, Hobbes mulai membaca buku Eukleides yang berjudul "Elemen-Elemen" dan tertarik atas metode deduktif Eukleides.[5]
Setelah kembali ke Inggris, pada tahun 1631, Hobbes kembali bekerja pada keluarga Cavendish untuk menjadi guru dari anak William.[5] Pada waktu inilah, Hobbes menghabiskan waktu untuk mempelajari matematika dan bidang-bidang sains lainnya.[5]
Periode 1630-an adalah tahun-tahun yang penting di dalam perkembangan intelektual Hobbes.[5] Di periode inilah perhatian Hobbes terhadap sains, khususnya optik, mulai berkembang.[5] Selain itu, pemikiran filsafat politik Hobbes juga mulai berkembang, sebagaimana terlihat dari buku "Elemen-Elemen Hukum" yang dikeluarkannya pada akhir dekade 1630-an.[5]
Pada tahun 1634, Hobbes dan muridnya kembali melakukan perjalanan ke Eropa Daratan, yakni Perancis dan Italia.[5] Perjalanan tersebut memberi pengaruh besar terhadap perkembangan intelektual Hobbes sebab ia berkenalan dengan ilmuwan dan matematikawan dari Perancis.[5] Di dalam oto-biografinya, Hobbes mengatakan bahwa ia telah mempelajari prinsip-prinsip dari ilmu alam di Perancis.[5]
Setelah Hobbes kembali ke Inggris pada bulan Oktober 1636, ia banyak menggunakan waktunya untuk karya-karya filsafat.[5] Hal tersebut dikarenakan muridnya sudah mulai dewasa sehingga Hobbes memiliki banyak waktu luang.[5] Salah satu karya sains-filsafat Hobbes yang paling awal adalah sebuah manuskrip tentang optik yang berjudul "Latin Optical MS".[5] Karya tersebut telah selesai dikerjakan pada tahun 1640.[5] Hobbes juga menulis manuskrip lain tentang metafisika dan epistemologi.[5]
Pekerjaan Hobbes dalam bidang sains dan metafisika terhenti pada akhir dekade 1630-an karena situasi politik.[5] Pada tahun 1637, kekuasaan absolut Raja Charles I mulai dipersoalkan.[5] Hobbes memperlihatkan dukungan kepada raja dengan mendedikasikan buku "Elemen-Elemen Hukum" untuk menjawab persoalan kekuasaan absolut.[5] Kedua karya Hobbes yang berikutnya, "De Cive" dan "Leviathan", mengembangkan lebih lanjut pemikiran dalam buku tersebut, meskipun esensi ketiganya sama.[5]
Pada tahun 1640, Hobbes mulai mempertimbangkan untuk tinggal di Paris dengan alasan keselamatan dirinya dan untuk lebih merangsang pemikirannya.[5] Akan tetapi, apa yang menjadi alasan langsung dari kepergian Hobbes dari Inggris menuju Perancis adalah debat yang terjadi di parlemen pada tanggal 7 November 1640.[5] Di sana, para anti-monarki mulai menyuarakan penentangan terhadap orang-orang yang pro-monarki dan mendukung kekuasaan absolut.[5] Karena Hobbes kuatir akan dipanggil untuk mempertanggungjawabkan "Elemen-Elemen Hukum", akhirnya ia pergi ke Paris.[5]

Di Paris

Di Paris, Hobbes dengan cepat menyatu dengan situasi intelektual di sana karena dibantu oleh rekannya Mersenne.[5] Pada tahun 1642, Mersenne juga membatu penerbitan karya Hobbes "De Cive".[5] Melalui buku tersebut, Hobbes mengukuhkan diri sebagai penulis dalam bidang politik yang memiliki reputasi di seluruh Eropa.[5] Tidak lama kemudian, Mersenne juga membantu penerbitan beberapa contoh karya Hobbes dalam bidang fisika dan optik di dalam dua volume buku kompilasi pada tahun 1644.[5] Judul dari kedua karya Hobbes tersebut adalah "Cogitata physico-mathematica" dan "Universae".[5] Melalui Mersenne juga, Hobbes dapat berkenalan pada awal tahun 1640-an dengan para filsuf dan ilmuwan Perancis.[5]
Selama periode 1640-an, Hobbes lebih banyak memberikan perhatian kepada fisika, metafisika, dan teologi ketimbang filsafat politik.[5] Pada tahun 1642-1643, Hobbes menulis karya yang melawan pandangan seorang filsuf Aristotelian Katolik yang bernama Thomas White[5] Kemudian pada tahun 1645, Hobbes berpolemik dengan seorang teolog Gereja Anglikan yang juga bernama John Bramhall mengenai hakikat kehendak bebas.[5] Polemik yang terjadi cukup panjang dan memakan waktu yang cukup lama.[5]

Charles II, murid Hobbes di Perancis.
Pada tahun 1646, Hobbes diminta untuk menjadi pengajar matematika bagi Pangeran Charles II, anak dari Raja Charles I.[5] Pekerjaan tersebut membawa Hobbes berhubungan lebih intensif dengan para politisi, pejabat istana, dan pejabat-pejabat gerejawi, yang semuanya merupakan pihak-pihak yang pro-monarki.[5] Situasi tersebut membuat Hobbes kembali memasuki bidang politik.[5] Karya Hobbes yang berjudul "Leviathan" diterbitkan di Inggris dengan bantuan seorang temannya, pada bulan April 1651.[5]
Pada tahun 1648, Hobbes mulai merencanakan untuk kembali ke Inggris.[5] Beberapa lama kemudian, situasi politik Inggris telah berubah karena pada tahun 1649 Raja Charles I dieksekusi.[5] Di Perancis, situasi Hobbes juga berubah sebab Mersenne telah meninggal dunia, dan Gassendi, seorang sahabat lain Hobbes, pindah ke Perancis selatan.[5] Buku "Leviathan" yang ditulis oleh Hobbes dapat dilihat sebagai pergeseran pandangan politiknya ke arah yang lebih netral, sebab di situ ia tidak dengan terang-terangan mengaku diri pro-monarki, melainkan berbicara soal kekuasaan saja.[5] Sebaliknya, pandangan Hobbes soal agama di dalam buku "Leviathan" membuat Hobbes memiliki masalah dengan orang-orang di sekitar Charles II, khususnya kaum agamawan.[5] Hobbes terancam untuk dibawa ke pengadilan, dan beberapa waktu kemudian para pejabat gerejawi Perancis memutuskan untuk membawa Hobbes ke pengadilan.[5] Karena itu, Hobbes melarikan diri dari Perancis pada pertengahan bulan Desember 1651, menuju ke Inggris.[5]

Kembali ke London

Sepulangnya ke Inggris, Hobbes menetap di London dan kembali ke pekerjaannya dahulu, yakni menjadi pengajar di keluarga bangsawan.[5] Nama buruk yang akan diterima Hobbes karena "Leviathan" tidak dengan segera muncul.[5] Kebanyakan pembaca awal dari buku tersebut cukup terkejut dengan isinya tentang agama, namun tidak segera menyuarakannya.[5]
Selain kaum agamawan, grup lain yang merasa terganggu dengan buku "Leviathan" adalah kaum akademisi dari universitas-universitas.[5] Hal itu menyebabkan Hobbes mendapat kritik dari kalangan akademisi.[5] Salah satu akademisi yang mengkritik Hobbes adalah John Wallis.[5] Mereka terlibat di dalam polemik dalam bidang matematika selama hampir dua puluh tahun.[5]
Pada era 1660-an, Hobbes mendapat tekanan dari pihak agamawan karena pandangannya tentang agama.[5] Pada awal tahun 1660-an ada rumor yang mengatakan beberapa Uskup Gereja Anglikan akan menetapkan pandangan Hobbes sebagai sesat.[5] Selain itu, pada tahun 1666, komite Dewan Rakyat (House of Commons) didesak untuk menginvestigasi buku "Leviathan".[5]
Hobbes merespons tekanan yang muncul dengan menerbitkan tulisan-tulisan pada akhir dekade 1660-an yang secara terbuka mempertahankan dirinya dari segala kritik mengenai keimanan Hobbes.[5] Beberapa tulisan tersebut, termasuk biografi singkat Hobbes, adalah "Mempertimbangkan Ulang Tuan Hobbes", penambahan apendiks kepada terjemahan bahasa Latin dari "Leviathan" yang mempertahankan karya tersebut dari tuduhan sesat pada tahun 1668, sebuah oto-biografi dalam bahasa Latin pada tahun 1679, dan sebuah karya tentang polemik sejarah gereja dalam bahasa Latin berjudul "Historia ecclesiastica" pada tahun 1688.[5]

Akhir Hidup

Pelbagai publikasi yang dilakukan Hobbes (dengan ditambah karya-karya lain tentang matematika dan terjemahan Iliad dan Odyssey karya Homeros dalam bahasa Inggris) membuktikan produktivitas Hobbes pada usia yang semakin lanjut.[5] Hobbes berusia 63 tahun ketika "Leviathan" diterbitkan, dan ia terus menulis hingga umur 91 tahun ketika ia meninggal.[5] Hobbes hidup bersama keluarga Cavendish yang memberinya perlindungan dam keamanan.[5] Kemudian saat Charles II, mantan muridnya, mendapatkan kekuasaan di Inggris, Hobbes mendapat pengampunan karena ia lari ke Inggris dan berpihak ke kubu anti-monarki.[5]
Kendati Hobbes memiliki pengikut setia di Inggris, namun ia lebih dihormati dan memiliki pengaruh di Perancis.[5] Ia dianggap sebagai salah satu filsuf terbesar yang pernah ada, dan buku "Leviathan" menjadi terkenal di sana.[5]
Hobbes meninggal pada tanggal 4 Desember 1679.[5] Ia mengidap sakit serius sejak bulan Oktober dan seminggu sebelum meninggal ia terkena stroke.[5] Hobbes dimakamkan di Hault Hukcnall, dekat Hardwick Hall.[5] Di atas batu nisannya, terdapat perkataan yang ditulis oleh Hobbes sendiri: "Dia dalah seorang ahli, dan karena reputasinya dalam banyak ilmu, ia dikenal luas baik di dalam negeri maupun luar negeri." [5]

Pemikiran

Empirisme


Thomas Hobbes
Inti pemikiran Hobbes berakar pada empirisme (berasal dari bahasa Yunani empeiria yang berarti 'berpengalaman dalam, berkenalan dengan').[8] Empirisme menyatakan bahwa pengalaman adalah asal dari segala pengetahuan.[6] Menurut Hobbes, filsafat adalah suatu ilmu pengetahuan tentang efek-efek atau akibat-akibat berupa fakta yang dapat diamati.[2] Segala yang ada ditentukan oleh sebab tertentu, yang mengikuti hukum ilmu pasti dan ilmu alam.[2] Yang nyata adalah yang dapat diamati oleh indera manusia, dan sama sekali tidak tergantung pada rasio manusia (bertentangan dengan rasionalisme).[2] Dengan menyatakan yang benar hanyalah yang inderawi, Hobbes mendapatkan jaminan atas kebenaran.[6]

Materialisme

Hobbes adalah seorang materialis. Ia meyakini bahwa manusia (termasuk pikirannya, dan bahkan Tuhan) terdiri dari materi.[9] Meskipun tidak pernah disebutkan secara eksplisit dalam karya-karyanya, Hobbes telah menyerang lawannya yang meyakini hal-hal imaterial.[9]

Tentang kemandirian filsafat

Hobbes dikenal sebagai salah seorang perintis kemandirian filsafat.[10] Hobbes berpendapat bahwa selama ini, filsafat banyak disusupi gagasan religius.[10] Hobbes menegaskan bahwa obyek filsafat adalah obyek-obyek lahiriah yang bergerak beserta ciri-cirinya.[10] Menurutnya, substansi yang tak dapat berubah, seperti Allah, dan substansi yang tak dapat diraba secara empiris, seperti roh, malaikat, dan sebagainya, bukanlah obyek dari filsafat.[10] Hobbes menyatakan bahwa filsafat harus membatasi diri pada masalah kontrol atas alam.[10]
Berdasarkan pemikiran tersebut, Hobbes menyatakan hanya ada empat bidang di dalam filsafat, yakni:
  1. Geometri, yang merupakan refleksi atas benda-benda dalam ruang.[10]
  2. Fisika, yang merupakan refleksi timbal-balik benda-benda dan gerak mereka.[10]
  3. Etika, yang dalam pengertian Hobbes dekat dengan psikologi.[10] Maksudnya, refleksi atas hasrat dan perasaan manusia serta gerak-gerak mentalnya.[10]
  4. Politik, yang adalah refleksi atas institusi-institusi sosial.[10]
Hobbes menyatakan bahwa keempat bidang tersebut saling berhubungan satu sama lain.[10] Karena itulah, Hobbes berpandangan bahwa masyarakat dan manusia dapat dilihat melalui gerak dan materi dalam fisika.[10]

Tentang pengenalan

Sebagai penganut empirisme, Hobbes menganggap bahwa pengetahuan berasal dari pengalaman semata-mata.[6] Tidak seperti kaum rasionalis, pengenalan dengan akal hanyalah mempunyai fungsi mekanis.[6] Pengenalan dengan akal dimulai dengan kata-kata yang menunjuk pada tanda-tanda tertentu yang sebenarnya sesuai dengan kebiasaan saja.[6] Pengertian-pengertian umum hanyalah nama belaka, yaitu sebagai nama bagi gambaran-gambaran ingatan tersebut, bukan nama benda pada dirinya sendiri.[6] Pengamatan indrawi terjadi karena gerak benda-benda di luar manusia yang menyebabkan adanya rangsangan terhadap indra manusia.[6] Rangsangan tersebut diteruskan ke otak, dan dari otak ke jantung.[6] Di dalam jantung timbullah reaksi tertentu yang merespons pengamatan tersebut.[6]

Manusia

Pandangan Hobbes tentang manusia dimulai dengan pertanyaan: apa yang menggerakkan manusia? (what makes him tick?).[3] Di sini, Hobbes membandingkan manusia dengan sebuah jam tangan yang bergerak secara teratur karena ada onderdil-onderdil di dalamnya.[3] Hobbes memandang manusia secara mekanis belaka.[1] Manusia adalah setumpuk material yang bekerja dan bergerak menurut hukum-hukum ilmu alam.[1] Untuk itu, ia menyingkirkan segala macam anggapan moral-metafisik tentang manusia.[1] Misalnya saja, pandangan bahwa manusia memiliki kodrat sosial, kebebasan, keabadian jiwa, dan sebagainya.[1] Jiwa dan akal budi hanya dianggap sebagai bagian dari proses mekanis di dalam tubuh.[2]
Setelah mengetahui seluruh kaitan antara onderdil-onderdil dari sebuah jam tangan, maka kita dapat mengetahui prinsip kerja yang menyebabkan jam tangan itu bergerak.[1] Kesimpulan akhir Hobbes mengenai faktor penggerak manusia adalah psikis manusia, yakni nafsu.[3] Nafsu yang paling kuat dari manusia adalah nafsu untuk mempertahankan diri, atau dengan kata lain, ketakutan akan kehilangan nyawa.[3][1] Dari dasar pemikiran itulah Hobbes kemudian merumuskan pandangannya tentang negara yang amat terkenal.[3][1]

Sampul depan Leviathan

Negara

Pemikiran Hobbes mengenai negara terdapat di dalam karya besarnya yang berjudul "Leviathan".[3] Leviathan adalah nama binatang di dalam mitologi Timur Tengah yang amat buas.[3] Di dalam filsafat Hobbes, Leviathan merupakan simbol suatu sistem negara.[3] Seperti Leviathan, negara haruslah berkuasa mutlak dan ditakuti oleh semua rakyatnya, karena hanya dengan cara inilah manusia-manusia dapat mengalami ketertiban dan kebahagiaan.[3]
Di dalam pandangannya tentang manusia, Hobbes berpendapat bahwa seluruh perilaku manusia ditentukan oleh kebutuhan mempertahankan diri atau takut akan kehilangan nyawa.[1] Dengan mengetahui hal tersebut, Hobbes merasa mampu menjawab pertanyaan bagaimana manusia harus bersikap baik, yaitu kuasailah rasa takut mati mereka.[1] Bila manusia diancam dan dibuat takut, ia akan dapat mengendalikan emosi dan nafsunya sehingga kehidupan sosial dapat terjamin.[1] Karena itu, negara haruslah menekan rasa takut mati dari warga negaranya, supaya setiap orang berbuat baik.[1]

Terbentuknya negara

Menurut Hobbes, manusia tidaklah bersifat sosial.[1] Manusia hanya memiliki satu kecenderungan dalam dirinya, yaitu keinginan mempertahankan diri.[1] Karena kecenderungan ini, manusia bersikap memusuhi dan mencurigai setiap manusia lain: homo homini lupus! (manusia adalah serigala bagi sesamanya).[1] Keadaan ini mendorong terjadinya "perang semua melawan semua" (bellum omnium contra omnes).[1] Inilah "keadaan alamiah" saat belum terbentuknya negara.[1] Akan tetapi, jika terus-menerus terjadi perang semua melawan semua, tentu saja eksistensi manusia juga terancam.[1] Untuk itu, manusia-manusia mengadakan sebuah perjanjian bersama untuk mendirikan negara, yang mengharuskan mereka untuk hidup dalam perdamaian dan ketertiban.[1]

Status negara

Negara berkuasa secara mutlak dan berhak menentukan nasib rakyatnya demi menjaga ketertiban dan perdamaian.[1] Status mutlak dimiliki negara sebab negara bukanlah rekan perjanjian, melainkan hasil dari perjanjian antar-warga negara.[1] Artinya, di dalam perjanjian membentuk negara, setiap warga negara telah menyerahkan semua hak mereka kepada negara.[1] Akan tetapi, negara sama sekali tidak punya kewajiban apapun atas warganya, termasuk kewajiban untuk bertanggung jawab pada rakyat.[1]
Negara berada di atas seluruh warga negara dan berkuasa secara mutlak.[1] Kemudian negara juga berhak menuntut ketaatan mutlak warga negara kepada hukum-hukum yang ada, serta menyediakan hukuman bagi yang melanggar, termasuk hukuman mati.[1] Dengan demikian, warga negara akan menekan hawa nafsu dan insting untuk berperilaku destruktif.[1] Selanjutnya, warga negara akan memilih untuk patuh kepada hukum karena memiliki rasa takut dihukum mati.[1] Hilangnya kebebasan warga negara terhadap negara adalah harga yang harus dibayar jika semua orang ingin hidup dalam ketenteraman, keteraturan, dan kedamaian.[1]

Pembatasan kekuasaan negara

Jikalau kekuasaan negara begitu mutlak dan tidak dapat dituntut oleh warga negara, bukankah potensi penyalahgunaan kekuasaan oleh negara menjadi amat besar?[1] Untuk mencegah terjadinya hal tersebut, Hobbes menyatakan dua hal.[1]
  • Pertama, perlu ada kesadaran dari pihak yang berkuasa mengenai konsep keadilan, sebab kelak perbuatannya harus dipertanggungjawabkan di hadapan Allah dalam pengadilan terakhir.[1]
  • Kedua, jika negara mengancam kelangsungan hidup warga negara, maka setiap warga negara yang memiliki rasa takut terhadap kematian akan berbalik menghancurkan negara, sebelum negara menghancurkan mereka.[1] Pada situasi tersebut, masyarakat akan kembali ke "keadaan alamiah" untuk selanjutnya membentuk negara yang lebih baik, dan seterusnya. [1]

Pengaruh

Tulisan-tulisan Hobbes, khususnya "Leviathan", sangat memengaruhi seluruh filsafat politik dan filsafat moral di Inggris pada masa-masa selanjutnya.[4] Di Eropa Daratan, Hobbes juga membawa pengaruh kuat.[4] Salah satu filsuf besar yang dipengaruhi Hobbes adalah Baruch Spinoza.[4] Spinoza dipengaruhi Hobbes di dalam pandangan-pandangan politik dan juga bagaimana berhubungan dengan Alkitab.[4]
Hobbes juga merupakan salah seorang filsuf, jika bukan yang pertama, yang amat berpengaruh dalam perdebatan antara kehendak bebas dan determinisme.[4] Selain itu, ia juga merupakan salah satu filsuf bahasa yang paling penting karena ia berpandangan bahwa bahasa bukan hanya digunakan untuk menjelaskan dunia, tetapi juga untuk menunjukkan perilaku-perilaku dan juga untuk mengikat janji dan kontrak.[4]
Kemudian Hobbes juga berpengaruh di dalam studi kontraktarianisme.[11] Kontraktarianisme merupakan bagian dari teori-teori moral dan politik yang menggunakan ide teori kontrak sosial.[11][11] Hobbes merupakan salah satu filsuf kontrak sosial tradisional yang menggunakan ide kontrak sosial untuk menegaskan peran negara.[11] Di sini, Hobbes merupakan pionir dari salah satu dari dua argumen moral tentang kontrak sosial yang ada.[11] Satu jenis argumen moral tentang kontrak sosial lainnya diberikan oleh Immanuel Kant.[11]
Selain itu, Hobbes juga merupakan filsuf modern pertama di dalam bidang sensasionalisme.[12] Sensasionalisme adalah pandangan yang menganggap semua keadaan mental, secara khusus kognitif manusia, beraal dari komposisi atau asosiasi-asosiasi dari sensasi atau perasaan belaka.[12]

Bibliografi terpilih

Lihat pula

Referensi

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj Simon Petrus L. Tjahjadi. 2004. Petualangan Intelektual. Yogyakarta: Kanisius. Hal. 227-236.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Harun Hadiwijono. 1983. Sari Sejarah Filsafat Barat 2. Yogyakarta: Kanisius. Hal. 32-35.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Franz Magnis-Suseno. 1992. Filsafat Sebagai Ilmu Kritis. Yogyakarta: Kanisius. Hal. 71-72.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j (Inggris)Bernard Gert. 1999. "Hobbes, Thomas". In The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy. Robert Audi, ed. 386-390. London: Cambridge University Press.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg (Inggris)Noel Malcolm. 2006. "A Summary Biography of Hobbes". In The Cambridge Companion to Hobbes. Tom Sorell, ed. 13-44. London: Cambridge University Press.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Juhaya S. Praja. 2005. Aliran-Aliran Filsafat dan Etika. Jakarta: Kencana. Hal. 105-110.
  7. ^ a b (Inggris)R.S. Peters. 1972. "Hobbes, Thomas". In The Encyclopedia of Philosophy Volume III. Paul Edwards, ed. 30-46. New York: Macmillan Publishing.
  8. ^ Lorens Bagus. 2000. Kamus Filsafat. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Hal. 197.
  9. ^ a b "Thomas Hobbes" (dalam bahasa English) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l F. Budi Hardiman. 2007. Filsafat Modern: Dari Machiavelli sampai Nietzsche. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Hal. 65-73.
  11. ^ a b c d e f (Inggris)J.Ham. 1999. "Contractarianism". In The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy. Robert Audi, ed. 182-184. London: Cambridge University Press.
  12. ^ a b (Inggris)Kenneth P. Winkler. 1999. "Sensationalism". In The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy. Robert Audi, ed. 833. London: Cambridge University Press.

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