29 August 2012


The initial process through the formation of metal foundry (casting) metal ore, so that the metal-metal shaped objects called ingot casting, ingot-ingot which will be processed into pig iron (pig iron) and will be set up in such a way that we are into another form travel through the process of casting (pouring) or other processes such as heat treatment (hot working processes) and cold worked (cold working processes). The processing of metals into raw materials is done by considering various aspects of the needs of the desired final product quality in which each process will greatly affect the nature and characteristics of the metal. To discuss more about this metal processing will we see first, how the process of formation of ore is as shown in figure 6 below.A. The separation of metal from ore (Ores)Basically all kind of metal is a natural material such as organic mineral elements, because the process of natural evolution have formed a sediment in the bowels of the earth.sediment (sludge) is a combination of particles of metal ions from the electrostatic interaction of the positively charged electron gas, and the atoms are negatively charged metal mixed with elements of rock is called as "ore" or ores, and through the process This will also get some very useful materials like gas in addition to the element iron.Geothermal pressure difference on the metal content of ore to be different in composition from one region to another according to the thickness of the earth's crust. Iron ore can be obtained through a process of exploration even in certain circumstances may arise to the surface of iron ore in volcanic and hydrothermal processes will result in the separation of the elements contained in the ore. elements include pegmatite, magnetic, haematite, limotite. siderite, metamorphosis and other elements such as the gas in the form of phosphorus, sulfur and carbon. Therefore, iron ore generally classified into 3 types, namely iron ore:1. Oxide:a) Magnetic Ores, Magnetic mineral composition consisting of (Fe3O4) wherein Magnetic brown with high grade iron ore that is above 56%b) Haematite Ores, composed of mineral Haematite (Fe2O3) where reddish yellow Magnetic iron ore grading 40 to 65%2. Ores containing limotite Hydrate (2Fe2O3.3H2O) and Geothite (Fe2O3.3H2O) with iron content 20 hinga 55%3. Karbonates, contains mineral Siderite (FeCO3 with iron content of 30%.Iron ore is processed in a high kitchen (blast furnace) into pig iron (pig iron) that came out shaped cast iron to be refined pig iron (wrought iron) into steel which is then further into cast iron (cast irons) with more specific characteristics.Elements obtained from the ore exploration is still forming, therefore, to obtain a certain type of material required quality purification process and then do the process in a measurable element deformulasi or mixing and compounding of various elements of the composition and specific levels. The process of this compound will produce an engineering material with different properties and characteristics of the good nature of chemical properties, physical properties and mechanical properties.The diversity of the properties of these metals to make the metal as one of the most dominant technique because it is easily formed, the voltage that can be improved as well as the availability of a relatively ample.In the following picture shown a variety of mineral elements contained in the bowels of the earth, elemental aluminum is a metal element that is most 8.13% and iron (Iron) which ranks second by 5%.B. Metal Iron (Ferro)Ferrous metal or Latin name Ferrum (Fe) is one of the most widely used metal and nearly all the characteristics of qualifying products can be met by the materials of ferrous iron although this has never been obtained in a pure state (see 2.1) in which iron ore is distinguished in 3 groups based on the composition and content of each of the elements it contains.Elemental composition as mentioned does not make iron qualify as a good technical structure and its mechanical properties even after being processed at the high kitchen (blast furnaces) though. The need for the material properties of the final product to be a reference in the selection of raw materials including ferrous metals even more differences exploration locations are also different elements such as iron oxide composition consisting of magnetic ores obtained in Russia, Sweden and the USA, whereas haematite ores found in Canada, Spain, Great Britain and Russia. Hydrate ores found in Poland, USA, Germany and France. Karbonates ores found in Germany and Austria.When we consider the term and the term "iron" as one of the raw materials used in the product being inaccurate, since in the bowels of the earth elemental iron has been bound with carbon and other elements and compounds of the element iron is iron with carbon elements carbon (FEC) or what we refer to as "steel". However, when we look back on "overview of engineering materials" which are materials engineering (materials for engineering ") of the type of iron is wrought iron or steel with a low carbon composition, medium and high. This means that only the compounds of carbon steel with a carbon content controlled the amount specified, and to achieve this purification process is required of each of the elements to be formulated properly, thus resulting a product raw materials with specific properties and characteristics can be selected according to the needs of quality products.C. PhosphorusAlmost never do let go of phosphorus in the metal refining process. Phosphorous is one of the elements contained in the iron and adversely affects the mechanical properties of iron or steel. Therefore there are two different types of iron ore by Phoshpornya levels, namely:• Low phosphorus Ores, namely iron ore (ores) with a phosphorus content of 0.04% on the state's iron ore typically contains a relatively high silicon elements• High phosphorus (base) Ores, iron ore that contains elemental phosphorus bases usually above 2.5%.This species is found in British ores with low Fe content as well as in eliminating the element phosphorus is also necessary operating costs are quite expensive, therefore the process of purification is usually blended with ores of different types.D. Smelting iron ore (Iron Ores)In the process of smelting iron ore heating basically done to open up the structure of the bonding atoms of the metal itself so that the metal melting process itself is carried out by reaction of compounds of the chemical elements, the iron ore with high iron content which of course will have a level of density is also high and thus it will be difficult to open up to the core structure of the material. In this way the iron ore required although a bit difficult to split into small granules were adequate with no more than 2.5% phosphorus and 0.2% levels of Sulphur, the kitchen should always be used in continuous and adequate treatment.Wash and iron ore increased by the use of magnetic bearings sparation of non-ferrous minerals, sulfur is removed by the weather and moisture and carbon dioxide by heating. Iron ore is broken down to form a clot with an average size adequate, dust generated will be mixed with coal dust (coal dust) helps the process of melting and forming clumps of tar.E. Coke and limeCoke is used as a fuel of high kitchen, where coke derived from coal is placed in the oven, the kitchen will also emit high gas that can be used as town gas that can be channeled through pipapipa, besides that it also acquired tar, crude-oil, ammonium sulphate is useful as a fertilizer for crops. Lime (limestone) serves as a high-flux in the kitchen, heating up to 9000 C in a high kitchen, limestone will produce an important chemical compound 2CaO.Si02 as a coating on the walls of the kitchen.


  1. your blog is so nice blog and provide such a good knowledge about Raw materials and how we use it.


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