Search This Blog


28 August 2012

metal science ,METAL ,ALUMUNIUM

1. Understanding AluminumAluminum is an element of non-ferrous metals are most numerous in the earth which is a lightweight metal that has a mild nature, good corrosion resistance and electrical conductivity and good heat, easy to set up either through the process of forming and machining, and the properties of the other good as metallic properties. In nature, aluminum oxide is a stable form that can not be reduced by means such as reducing other metals. Aluminum reduction can only be done by electrolysis. In addition to the mechanical strength is greatly increased by the addition of Cu, Mg, Si. Mn, Zn, Ni, etc., individually or together, providing also other good properties such as corrosion resistance, wear resistance, low coefficient of expansion and so forth. Aluminum alloys can be divided into two groups, namely aluminum alloy wronglt (sheet) and costing aluminum alloy (cast bars). Aluminum (99.99%) had a specific gravity of 2.7 g/cm3, the density of 2.685 kg/m3, and the melting point at a temperature of 6600C, aluminum has the strength to weight ratio higher than steel. Corrosion resistant properties of aluminum obtained from the formation of aluminum oxide layer from the surface of aluminum. This oxide layer is strong and tightly attached to the surface, and stable (does not react with the surrounding environment) that protects the inside.Alloying elements in aluminum, among others:A. Copper (Cu), increase strength and hardness, but lower elongation (the length when pulled). Aluminum content of Cu in the most optimal is between 4-6%.2. Zinc or zinc (Zn), increase the tensile value.3. Manganese (Mn), increase strength in high temperature.4. Magnesium (Mg), aluminum power raise and lower the value of its ductility. Corrosion resistance and weldability are also good.5. Silicon (Si), aluminum alloys can cause heat treated to increase hardness.6. Lithium (Li), was added to improve oxidation resistance properties.
2. Micro Structure of Aluminum
 Aluminum has a metal structure to form FCC (Face Centered Cubic)

   (Pure aluminum) (Aluminum with Cu, Mn, Mg) (Aluminum with Cu)
                (Aluminum with Si) (Aluminum with Ti)

            (Aluminum with Zn) (Aluminum with Mg)3. Or Atom content elementPure aluminum has a purity of up to 99.96% and a minimum of 99%. Pengotornya substance of the elements Fe and Si. Aluminum alloys have a wide range of atoms or the content of major elements (major) and minor. Major elements such as Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Si whereas minor elements such as Cr, Ca, Pb, Ag, Fe, Sn, Zr, Ti, Sn, and others. Alloying elements in aluminum major.
4. Method of Construction:There are several processes that can be done to make pure aluminum and aluminum alloys, namely:A. Aluminum Mining ProcessMined aluminum from bauxite ore which is widely available in the earth's surface. Bauxite is mined for industrial purposes has alumunium40-60% levels. Once mined bauxite ore milled and crushed finely and evenly. Heating process is then performed to reduce existing water levels. Subsequently undergo a process of refining bauxite.2. Purification process of aluminum
                          Bauxite refining process performed by the method of Bayer and the end result is alumina.First of all bauxite is mixed with chemicals such as caustic soda solution. The mixture is then pumped into the tube and then a heating press. Filtering process is then performed and followed by the seeding process to form a precipitate wet alumina (hydrated alumina). Wet alumina is then washed and passed by the drying process by heating to a temperature of 1200oC. The final result is the alumina particles with the chemical formula Al2O3.
3. Aluminum Smelting ProcessAlumina is produced from the refining process still contains oxygen that must be done the next process is melting. Alumina smelting is done by electrolytic reduction process. This melting process using Hall-Heroult method. Alumina is dissolved in a chemical solution called cryolite in a furnace called a pot.This pot has walls made of carbon. The outside of the pot is made of steel. Electricity supplied through the anode and cathode. The process requires a reduction of carbon extracted from anode. In this process the direction of electrical current required by 50-150 kiloampere.
                             The electrical current will memgelektrolisa alumina into aluminum and oxygen react to form compounds of CO2. Molten aluminum from the electrolysis will come down to the bottom of the pot and then flowed by siphon principle to krusibel which is then transported to the regulator furnaces (holding furnace).Electricity demand is spent to produce 1kg of aluminum ranges from about 12-15 kWh. One kilogram of aluminum produced from alumina 2kg and 1/2 kg of carbon. Purification of alumina into aluminum reaction is as follows:2Al2O3 3C + 4Al + 3CO2 →
 4. Classification of AluminumA. Pure aluminumAluminum in the liquid state obtained through the electrolysis process, which generally reaches 99.85 wt% purity. However, when the electrolysis process is carried further, it will get aluminum with a purity of 99.99% is achieved with the materials sembilannya number four.Corrosion resistance change according to the purity, in general, for the purity of 99.0% or above can be utilized in air hold in many years. Electrical conductivity of Al, is approximately 65% ​​of the electrical conductivity of copper, but its density about one-third of the copper making it possible to expand the cross-section. Therefore, it can be used for cable and in various forms. For example, a thin sheet (foil). In this case can be used Al with a purity of 99.0%. For the reflector that require high reflectivity are also used for the electrolytic kodensor Al with the Nine four.1xxx series aluminum compositionThe designation,% Fe,% Cu,% Mn,% Mg,% Zn,% Ti,% Others,% al,% min1050 0.25 0.4 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.03 0.03 99.510600.25 0.35 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.03 0.03 99.61100Fe 0.05-0.2 Si + 0.95 0,05 - 0.1 to 0.15 991145 0:55 The Fe + 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.03 0.03 99.451:00 1200 + Fe 0.05 Si 0.05-0.1 0.05 0.15 99The Fe + 0.70 1230 0.1 0.05 0.05 0.1 0.03 0.03 99.313500.1 0.4 0.05 0.01 - 0.05 to 0.11 99.5
2. Aluminum alloyAluminum alloys are grouped in a variety of standards by different countries in the world. However, the classification of the most famous and perfect is the standard Aluminum Association (AA) in the United States, based on previous standards daro Alcoa (Aluminum Company of America).a. Copper aluminum alloys (2xxx series)These alloys can be heat treatment mainly containing (2.5 to 5%) Cu. From this series of the famous 2017 series known as "duralimin" containing 4% Cu, 0.5% Mg, 0.5% Mn in the composition of the standard. Mg alloy is improved on the standard composition of Al, 4.5% Cu, 1.5% Mg, 0.5% Mn alloy named named 2024 Super Duralumin. Cu alloy which has had poor corrosion resistance, so if special corrosion resistance is required surface is coated with pure Al or Al alloy that resists corrosion called alkad plate. The alloy is widely used for tools that work at higher temperatures such as the piston and the cylinder head combustion.

2xxx series aluminum composition
The designation,% Cu,% Mn,% Mg,% Ni, Ti%,% Others,%20110.4 max 5.0-6.0 ---- Pb = 0.4, Bi = 0.420140.5-1.2 3.9-5.0 0.4-1.2 0.2-0.8 - 0.15 max -20170.2-0.8 3.5-4.5 0.4-1.0 0.4-0.8 - 0.15 max -2018 0.9 max 3.5-4.5 - 0.4-0.9 1.7-2.3 -20240. 5 max 3.8-4.9 0.3-0.9 1.2-1.8 - 0.15 max -2025 0.5-1.2 3.9-5.0 0.4-1.2 - 0.15 max -2036 0. 5 max 2.2-3.0 0.1-0.4 0.3-0.6 - 0.15 max -2117 0. 8 max 2.2-3.0 0.2-0.5 ----21240. 2 max 3.8-4.9 0.3-0.9 1.2-1.8 - 0.15 max -2218 0. 9 max 3.5-4.5 - 1.2-1.8 1.7-2.3 -22190. 2 max 5.6-6.8 0.2-0.4 - 0.02-0.1 V = 0.1, Zr = 12:182319 0. 2 max 5.6-6.8 0.2-0.4 - 0.1-0.2 V = 0.1, Zr = 12:18
b. Magnese aluminum alloys (3xxx series)Mn is an element which strengthens Al without reducing corrosion resistance and is used to make corrosion-resistant alloys. In the phase diagram, the Al-Mn is in equilibrium with the solid solution Al is Al6Mn (25.3%). Actually alloy Al-1, 2% Mn and Al-1, 2% Mn-1, 0% Mg alloy called 3003 and 3004 are used as an alloy without heat treatment. Alloys in this series can not be hardened by heat treatment. Series 3003 with 1.2% Mn malleable, corrosion resistance, and (weldability) either. Widely used for pipelines and oil tanks.
Aluminum composition 3xxx seriesDesignation Cu,% Mn,% Mg,%30030:05 to 0:20 1.0-1.5 -30040:25 max 1.0-1.5 0.8-1.330050:30 max 1.0-1.5 0.2-0.631050:30 max 0.3-0.8 0.2-0.8
c. Aluminum silicon alloys (4xxx series)Al-Si alloy excellent kecairannya, which has a very good surface, with no hot brittleness, and very good for alloy castings. In addition, these alloys have good corrosion resistance, very light, very small expansion coefficient, and as a conductor of heat and electricity. Because it has good advantages, these alloys are very widely used. But in this case the modification is not necessary. Silumin properties greatly improved by heat treatment and slightly improved by alloying elements. Generally performed with 0.15 to 0.4% Mn alloy and 0.5% Mg. Treated alloy dissolution and elder named silumin gamma and the only ditemper silumin called beta. Alloys that require heat treatment coupled with Mg and Ni for Cu also give the heat of violence at the time, this material is used for piston motor.The thermal expansion coefficient is very low to low coefficient of thermal alloys are also a lot more when added Si. Has developed Al-Si alloys hypereutektik to 29% Si to refine the primary Si grains. Refining process will be more effective with the addition of P by the Cu-P alloy or the addition of phosphorus chloride (PCL5) to achieve the presentations 0.001% P, can be achieved primary refining and homogenization. Al-Si alloy is widely used as an electrode for welding is mainly containing 5% Si.Paired non-heat treatable series. 4032 series alloy containing 12.5% ​​Si malleable and has a very low coefficient of thermal expansion is used for a forged piston.

Aluminum composition 4xxx seriesThe designation,% Cu,% Mg,% Ni,% Be,%403211.0-13.5 0.5-1.3 0.8-1.3 0.5-1.3 -40434.5-6.0 0:30 max 0:05 max - 0.000840459.0-11.0 0:30 max 0:05 max -4145 9.3-10.7 3.3-4.7 0.15 max - 0.000843430:25 --- max 6.8-8.20:10 max 4643 3.6-4.6 0.1-0.3 - 0.0008
d. Aluminum magnesium alloys (5xxx series)In the binary alloys Al-Mg single phase is in equilibrium with the solid solution Al is a solid solution which is an inter-metallic compounds Al3Mg2. Tues unit is a hexagonal arrangement of the meeting (Eph), but there is also a unit cell face-centered cubic (fcc) complex. Eutetiknya point is 450 º C, 35% Mg and solid solubility limit at the eutectic temperature is 17.4% which decreased to normal temperature to about 1.9% Mg, so the ability of aging can be expected.Al-Mg alloys have excellent corrosion resistance is called hidrinalium. With 2-3% Mg alloys can be easily forged, rolled and extruded. Al-Mg alloys are generally non heat tretable. Series 5052 with 2.5% Mg is widely used to mix oil and aircraft fuel. Series 5052 is used as a forging. Alloy 5056 is the strongest alloy hardened by hardening after strain when treated in a high hardness. Annealed alloy 5083 is a blend between (4.5% Mg) is strong and easily welded so that is widely used as materials for LNG tanks. Series 5005 with 0.8% Mg is widely used as stem extrusi profile. Series 5050 with 1.2% Mg is used as the oil and gas pipelines on the vehicle.

composition Aluminum 5xxx seriesDesignation Mn,% Mg,% Cr, Ti%,% Others,%50050.2 max 0.1 max 0.5-1.1 -50500.1 max 0.1 max 1.1-1.8 -50520.1 max 2.2-2.8 0:15 to 0:35 -50564.5-5.6 0.05-0.2 0:05 to 0:20 -50830.4-1.0 4.0-4.9 0.05-0.25 0.15 max -50860.2-0.7 3.5-4.5 0.05-0.25 0.15 max -51540:15 to 0:35 0:20 max 0.1 max 3.1-3.9 -5183 0.5-1.0 4.3-5.2 0.05-0.25 0.15 max = 0.0008 Be52520.1 max 2.2-2.8 - V = 0.05 -52540:15 to 0:35 0:05 0:01 max max 3.1-3.9 -5356 0.05-0.2 4.5-5.5 0.05-0.20 0.06-0.20 Be = 0.000854540:05 to 0:20 0:20 max 0.5-1.0 2.4-3.0 -54560:05 to 0:20 0:20 max 0.5-1.0 4.7-5.5 -54570:15 to 0:45 0.8-1.2 - V = 0.055554 0.5-1.0 2.4-3.0 0.05-0.20 0.05-0.20 Be = 0.00085556 0.5-1.0 4.7-5.5 0.05-0.20 0.05-0.20 Be = 0.00085652Max 2.2-2.8 0:01 0:15 to 0:35 -5654 0:15 to 0:35 0:05 to 0:15 0:01 max 3.1-3.9 Be = 0.000856570:03 max 0.6-1.0 - Ga = 0.03
 e. Magnesium aluminum silicon alloys (6xxx series)The addition of Mg to Al bit will cause the hardening of aging are very rare, but when simultaneously contain Si, it can be hardened by heat aging after dissolution treatment. This is because the compound M2Si behave as a pure component and create a balance of pseudo-binary system with Al. Alloys in this system has a smaller force than the other alloys are used as a forging, but very tough, very good ability to shape forging, extrusion, and in addition can be strengthened by heat treatment after processing. Alloy 6063 is widely used as a frame construction. Because of its alloys have a pretty good strength without reducing the electrical conductivity is used for power cables. In this case mixing with Cu, Fe, and Mn should be avoided because these elements causes the electric resistance becomes high. Magnesium and silicon to form Mg2Si compound (magnesium silicide) which provide high strength in these alloys after heat treatment. Series 6053, 6061, 6063 has excellent corrosion resistant properties of heat treatable aluminum on the other. The use of aluminum 6xxx series motors are widely used for the piston and cylinder head combustion.composition of Aluminum 6xxx seriesThe designation,% Cu,% Mn,% Mg,% Cr,% Others,%0.35-1.0 6003 0:10 max. 0.8 max. 0:35 max 0.8-1.5. -0.6-0.9 6005 0:10 max. 0:10 max. 0:10 max 0.4-0.6. -6053* 0:10 max. - 0:15 to 0:35 1.1-1.4 -60610:15 to 0:40 0:15 max 0.4-0.8. 0.8-1.2 0:04 to 0:35 -60630:10 max 0.2-0.6. 0:10 max. 0:10 0.45-0.9 max. -60660.9-1.8 0.7-1.2 0.6-1.1 0.8-1.4 0.40 max. -60701.0-1.7 0.15-0.40 0.4-1.0 0.50-1.2 0.10 max. -61010:10 max 0.3-0.7. 0:03 max. 0:03 0.35-0.8 max. B 0.06% max.0.6-1.0 6105 0:10 max. 0:10 max. 0:10 0.45-0.8 max. -61510:35 max 0.6-1.2. 0:20 max. 0.45-0.8 0:15 to 0:35 -0.4-0.8 6162 0:20 max. 0:10 max. 0:10 max 0.7-1.1. -62010:10 max 0.5-0.9. 0:03 max. 0:03 max 0.6-0.9. B 0.06% max.6253 * 0:10 max. - 0:04 to 0:35 1.0-1.5 Zn 1.6-2.4%6262 0.4-0.8 0.15-0.40 0.15 max. 0:04 to 0:14 0.8-1.2 0.4-0.7% Pb and Bi each0.7-1.3 6351 0:10 max. 0.4-0.8 0.4-0.8 -64630:20 max 0.2-0.6. 0:05 max. 0.4-0.9 -
f. Aluminum zinc alloy (7xxx series)Aluminum caused by the pseudo-binary equilibrium between metal compound and solubility decreases MgZn2 when the temperature dropped. It has been known for years that the alloy system can be very hard to harvest after the dissolution treatment. But for a long time, have not used because the nature of brittle fracture by stress corrosion cracks. In Japan at the beginning of 1940, Iragashi et al conducted a study and succeeded in developing an alloy with the addition of approximately 0.3% Mn or Cr, which are refined bitur solid crystals, and change the shape of stress corrosion cracks and precipitation does not occur. At that time the alloy is called ESD, Duralumin, superekstra. During World War II, the United States with nearly the same purpose has also developed an alloy, an alloy consisting of Al-5, 5% Zn-2, 5% Mn-1, 5% Cu-0, 3% Cr-0, 2% Mn, now named the 7075 alloy. This alloy has the highest strength alloys among others. The use of this alloy is for the construction of most large aircraft. In addition, its use becomes more important as a construction material.

7xxx series aluminum compositionDesignation Cu,% Mn,% Mg,% Cr,% Zn, Zr%,%70011.6-2.6 0.2 max. 0:18 to 0:35 2.6-3.4 6.8-8.0 -70050:10 max. B 0.2-0.7 1.0-1.8 0.06-0.20 4.0-5.0 0.08-0.207008 0:05 max. 0:05 max. 0:12 to 0:25 0.7-1.4 4.5-5.5 -70390:10 max. 0.1-0.4 2.3-3.3 0.15-0.25 3.5-4.5 -1.2-1.9 7049 0:20 max. 0:10 to 0:22 2.0-2.9 7.2-8.2 -2.0-2.6 7050 0:10 max. 0:04 max 1.9-2.6. 5.7-6.7 0.08-0.1570720:10 max. 0:10 max. 0:10 max. - 0.8-1.3 -70750:30 max 1.2-2.0. 0:18 to 0:28 2.1-2.9 5.1-6.1 -7108 0:05 max. 0:05 max. 0.7-1.4 - 4.5-5.5 0:12 to 0:2571780:30 max 1.6-2.4. 0:18 to 0:28 2.4-3.1 6.7-7.3 -
Classification of forged aluminum alloyAlcoa AA Standard Standard Specification previous1001 99.5% pure Al 1S or above1100 99.0% pure Al 2S or above10S-29s 2010-2029 Cu is the main alloying elements3003-3009 3S-9s Mn is the main alloying elements4030-4039 The 30S-39s are the main alloying elements5050-5086 Mg is the main alloying elements50S-69S 6061-6069 Mg2Si is the main alloying elements70S-79S 7070-7079 Zn is the main alloying elements
5. Technical properties of aluminuma. Mechanical propertiesPowerStrength and hardness of aluminum is not so high. However, with the integration and heat treatment can improve the strength and hardness. Most of the increased strength aluminum material with a metal reinforcement mechanism is called precipitation hardening. In precipitation hardening should be two phases, namely that there are more phases called phase matrix and a smaller number called the precipitate. This strengthening mechanism involves three phases, namely solid solution treatment: heating up to above the solvus line to obtain a homogeneous solid solution phase, quenching: rapidly cooled to maintain a homogeneous solid phase micro-structure in order to prevent diffusion, and aging: heated to a temperature not too high-alpha phase diffusion to occur at a distance form the precipitate. In addition, there are several ways that standard hardness testing is used to test the hardness of metals which include testing Brinell, Rockwell, Vickers, Shore, and Meyer.

Modulus of ElasticityAluminum has a lower modulus of elasticity compared to steel and iron, but of the strength to weight ratio, aluminum is better. That elastic aluminum has a lower melting point and density. In the liquefied condition can be processed in various ways. This is what enables products from aluminum to be formed is essentially close to the end of product design.Toughness (ductility)The higher level of purity aluminum, the higher the level of tenacity.Fatigue (Fatigue)Aluminum did not show any fatigue limit, because the aluminum will fail if pressed.Recyclability (power to be recycled)Aluminium is 100% recycled materials with no downgrading of quality. The back of the aluminum, peleburannya require little energy, only about 5% of the energy needed to produce primary metal initially is needed in the recycling process.Reflectivity (reflectivity)Aluminum reflector which is visible light and heat, and which together with low weight, making it ideal for reflector materials such as soft furnishings.The purity of the properties of Al (%)99.996> 99.075% cold rolled annealed Annealed H18Tensile strength (kg/mm2) 4.9 11.6 9.3 16.9Creep strength (0.2%) (kg/mm2) 11.0 1.3 3.5 14.8Extension (%) 48.8 5.5 35 5Brinell hardness 17 27 23 44

Tensile strength between 230 to 570 MPaYoung modulus between 69 to 79 GPaYield strength of between 215 to 505MPaUltimate strength of 455 mPaStrain 10-25%Shear strength 30 mPa

 Comparison of tensile steel and aluminum
b. Physical propertiesThe purity of the properties of Al (%)99.996> 99.0Density (20oC) 2.6989 2.71Melting point (0C) 660.2 653-657Specific heat (cal / g.oC) (100oC) 0.2226 0.2297Temperature coefficient of electrical conductivity (/ C) 64.94 59 (annealed)Expansion coefficient (20-100oC) 23.86 × 10-6 23.5 × 10-6Type of crystal, the fcc lattice constant, a = 4.013 kx fcc, a = 4.04 KX
6. Standardization and Encoding AluminumINTER ALLOY ISO DIN JIS ASTMUSA Germany Intl. Japan1050A(1050) Al99, 5 1050A Al99, 5 (A1050)12001200 Al99 Al99, 0 A12002007AlCuMgPb 2007 (Al Cu4PbMg)20112011 2011 Al Cu6BiPb A2011 AlCuBiPb20142014 2014 Al Cu4SiMg A2014 AlCuSiMn2014A(AlCuSiMn) Al Cu4SiMg 2014A (A)2017A(2017) Al Cu4MgSi AlCuMg1 2017A (A) (A2017)20242024 2024 Al Cu4Mg1 A2024 AlCuMg22030(AlCuMgPb) 2030 Al Cu4PbMg30033003 3003 Al Mn1Cu A3003 AlMnCu3004Al Mn1Mg1 Al Mn1Mg13005Mn1Mg0 Al, 5 Al Mn1Mg0, 53103AlMn1 3103 Al Mn13105Al Mn0, 5Mg0, 5 Al Mn0, 5Mg0, 550055005 (AlMg1) 5005 Al Mg1 (B) A50055005AAlMg1 5005A5049Al Mg2Mn0, 8 Al Mg2Mn0, 85052AlMg2 5052, 5052 Al-Mg 2 5, 5 A50525083AlMg4 5083, 5083 Al Mg4 5Mn, 5Mn0, 7 A508350865086 5086 Al Mg4 A5086 AlMg4Mn5154A5154A Al Mg3, 5 (A) (A5154)5182Al Mg5Mn Al Mg4, 5Mn0, 45251AlMg2Mn0, Mg 2 Al 3 52515454AlMg2 5454, 5454 Al Mg3Mn A5454 7Mn5754AlMg3 5754 Al Mg36005AAlMgSi0, 6005A Al SiMg 7 (A) (A6NO1)6016
6060(6063) AlMgSi0, 6060 Al 5 MgSi (A6063)60616061 6061 Al Mg1SiCu A6061 AlMg1SiCu60636063 (AlMgSi0, 5) 6063 Al Mg0, 7Si A60636082AlMgSi1 6082 Al Si1MgMn6106Al MgSiMn70107010 Al Zn6MgCu7020(7005) AlZn4, 7020 5Mg1 Al Zn4, 5Mg1 (A7N01)7075AlZnMgCu1 7075, 5 7075 Al ZN5, A7075 5MgCu
How to read international standardsAluminum with a 4 digit coding: The first number indicates the series groups of alloy = The second digit indicates modifications of alloy = pure or impurity limits. The figure 0 indicates pure alloy Numbers 1 through 9 show the decimal modifications, the minimum percentage of Al. Two recent figure = equal to two decimal points to the right, the minimum percentage of Al.
7. Aluminum Applications
Have low strength, high corrosion resistance, high levels of reflective, and thermal and electrical conductivity are high that this combination is suitable for use in packaging, electrical devices, heating equipment, lighting, decoration and others.
Through hardening by precipitation hardening can be used for flight and wheels, military vehicles, suitable also for screws, baud, machinery components, and others.(Example of the 2xxx series) Aluminum 3xxx seriesTypical applications of this series the average for cans and for the alloy in a way that requires the formation of pressure and rolling. In addition to packaging, construction, home appliances, this alloy is also used for things that require strength, formabilitas, weldabilitas, and high corrosion as well as for heating equipment such as a strand of brazing and heating pipes.

(Example of the 3xxx series)

 Aluminum 4xxx seriesHigh silicon content is used for products that require a high level of stiffness or ductility low.

(Example of the RupiaH series)

Aluminum 5xxx seriesCombination of strength is, extraordinary corrosion resistance, and weldabilitas commonly used for exterior (outdoor), architecture, particularly in the field of marine (shipbuilding), and also for the automotive vehicle body and chassis components.
(Example of the 5xxx series)
 Aluminum 6xxx seriesA good combination of high strength, formabilitas, corrosion resistance, and weldabilitas so used to transport (automotive outer body, etc.), buildings (doors, windows, etc.), marine, heating, etc..

 (Example pengguaan 6xxx series)

 Aluminium 7xxx seriesThe most important part of this series based on the use of high strength, for example in the field of aviation, space exploration, military and nuclear. But also the structural attributes of the building as well as a tennis racquet sports, skiing, etc..

 (Example pengguaan 7xxx series)

8. Shape, size, price Available In MarketShape size PriceLength Diameter ThicknessElbow 6 m 3/8 inch 0.5 mm Rp 10,0006 m ½ inch 0.5 mm Rp 15,0006 m ¾ inch 0.5 mm $ 20,0006 m 1 inch 0.5 mm Rp 25,0006 m 5/8 inch 0.5 mm Rp 15,000pipe 3/8 inch k 6 m 0.5 mm Rp 12,5003/8 inch b 6 m 0.5 mm Rp 15,0006 ½ inch 0.5 mm Rp 20,000 m5/8 inch 6 m 0.5 mm Rp 27.500¾ inch 6 m 0.5 mm Rp 30,0001 inch 6 m 0.5 mm Rp 55,000Box 6 m 1 x 1 inch 0.5 mm Rp 45.0006 m ½ x ¾ inch 0.5 mm $ 20,0006 m ½ x 1 inch 0.5 mm Rp 25,0001 x 6 m 3/2 inch 0.5 mm Rp 60,0006 m 1 x 2 TB 0.5 mm Rp 100,000sheet 2 m 1 m 0.8 mm Rp 200,0002 m 1 m 0.5 mm Rp 105.00


  1. 18 Thе thіrd technique is the pressurе thаt
    ωаs aрρlied to yоur taх ԁeductionѕ
    as a medical modality helpѕ uncoνer any myth
    bу оffeг mаssage theгaρу programs usuallу inсludes pгаcticаl іnstructіon in
    Τhaі massage. Maκe sure уοu carеfully weigh the pгos and conѕ
    оf buуing it.

    Fееl free to visit my wеb page Erotic Massage London


Please double post in this blog is up to you


Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...