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03 November 2012

Symbols Hazardous Chemicals


Today many major industries using hazardous chemicals in production implementation. If seen 50 years ago, perhaps only 1 million tons produced annually but now less elbih 400 million tons of chemicals are produced annually.
In between 5 to 7 million chemicals are known and marketed more than 80,000 estimated 500 to 10,000 chemicals are traded hazards diataranya 150 to 200 species likely to cause cancer in humans.
The use of these chemicals are used in companies such as;
Agriculture (Agrochemical)
industry
laboratory
medical
Based on the United Nations / North America UN / UNA, hazardous chemical substance is divided into 9 but here I will discuss only 7;
EASY EXPLOSION

simbol explosive

All materials or objects that can produce an explosion effects, including certain ingredients in the mix or if you have a heating, friction, pressure can lead to detonation
example
Ammonium nitrate, ammonium perchlorate, ammonium picrate, detonators for ammunisi, diazodinitrophenol, dinitropenol, dynamite, gunpowder, picric acid, (TNT, Nitro Glycerine, Ammunition, powder for blasting)
  GAS-GAS
Consists of:


simbol flammable gas



Flammable gases (acetelyne, LPG​​, Hydrogen, CO, ethylene, ethyl fluoride, ethyl methyl ether, butane, neopentane, propane, methane, methyl chlorodiline, thinner, gasoline.



non flammable gas



Pressurized gas which is not flammable (oxygen, nitrogen, helium, argon, neon, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafolride)





Toxic Gas (chlorien, Methil bromide, nitric oxide, anhydrous ammonium-, arsine, boron trichloride carbonil sulfites, cyanogen, etc.
CLASS 3: LIQUID EASY ON (FLAMMABLE GAS)


simbol flammable gas


Combustible liquids in contact with a source of ignition
The liquid has less ignition point of 61 ° C
Vapors from materials that include this class can cause fainting or even death
example:
petrol, acetone, benzene, butanol, chlorobenzene, 2 chloropropene ethanol, carbon disuliphide, di-iso-propylane
EASY ON solids (FLAMMABLE Solids)
Combustible solid materials (flammable solids)




Combustible solid materials in contact with the external source of ignition such as sparks or flames. This material is ready to light up if you have friction
Example: sulpur, phosphorus, picric acid, magnesium, aluminum powder, calcium resinate, celluloid, dinitrophenol, hexamine.
Flammable solid materials that spontaneously (spontaneously Combustible Substances)


Spontaneously_Combustible_Solid


This class of solid materials under ordinary circumstances have a great ability to ignite spontaneously.
Some types have a great possibility to switch itself when in contact with moist or humid air
Can also produce toxic gases when burned
Example: carbon, non-activated charcoal, carbon black, aluminum Alkyls, phosphorus
CLASS 4: solids EASY ON (FLAMMABLE Solids)
Substances dangerous when wet (Dangerous when wet)


dangerous when wet


Solids or liquids that can generate flammable gases when in contact with water
This material also increases the toxic gas when in contact with moisture, water or acids
Example: calcium carbide, potassium phosphide, potassium, maneb, magnesium hydride, calcium silicon manganese, boron trifluoride dimethyl etherate, barium, aluminum hydride.
MATERIALS oxidize (OXIDIZING AGENT)
Material that is oxidize


Oxidizing_Agent


This material is likely to cause fire when in contact with combustible materials and can cause explosions
Example: calcium hypochlorite, sodium peroxide, ammonium dichromate, ammonium perchlorate, chromium nitrate, copper chlorate, ferric nitrate, potassium bromate, tetranitromethane, zinc permanganate
MATERIALS oxidize (OXIDIZING AGENT)
Organic peroxides


Organic_Peroxide_Oxidizing_Agent


Can help the burning of combustible materials. When exposed to heat or flame for a long time can lead to detonation.
If the material reacts with the other effect will be more dangerous
Decomposition of these materials can produce toxic and flammable gases
Example: benzol peroxides, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide, dicetyl perdicarbonate, peracetic acid.
TOXIC MATERIALS OR RESULT IN INFECTION
Poisonous (Toxic) Substances


Poison


Materials that can cause death or injury to humans if ingested, inhaled or in contact with skin
Example: cyanohydrin, calcium cyanide, carbon tetrachloride, dinitrobenzenes, epichlorohydrin mercuric nitrate, etc.
Harmful (Toxic) Substances


HARMFUL

Materials that can be harmful to humans if ingested, inhaled or in contact with skin
Example: acrylamide, 2-amino-5-diethylamino pentane, ammonium fluorosilicate, chloroanisidines etc.
TOXIC MATERIALS OR RESULT IN INFECTION
Materials that can lead to infection

Biohazard

Materials that contain disease-causing organisms
Example: tisue of the patient, where the proliferation of viruses, bacteria, plants or animals
  MATERIALS radiated

radioactive

Material that contains material or combining of materials that can emit radiation spontaneously
Example: uranium, 90Co, tritium, 32P, 35S, 125i, 14C

HAZARD SYMBOL
Hazard Symbols used for the labeling of hazardous substances according to Regulations on Hazardous Substances (Ordinance on Substances Hazardeous)
Regulations on Hazardous Substances (Ordinance on Substances Hazardeous) is a rule to protect / safeguard hazardous materials and is mainly composed of occupational safety. Directions Regulations on Hazardous Substances (Ordinance on Substances Hazardeous) for the classification, packaging and labeling of chemicals is valid for all areas, areas and applications, and of course, also for the environment, consumer protection and human health.
The term hazardous materials is a common name and legal chemicals (kemikalia) (Chemicals Law) § 19/2 is defined as
• Hazardous materials or formulations according to the law kemikalia (Chemicals Law) § 3a,
• Ingredients, formulations and products may establish or release hazardous materials or formulations for the production or use,
• Ingredients, formulations and products are easily explode
Here are some definitions that can be used to understand the legal issues:
• Material / substance is an element or chemical compound - how it happens in nature or produced by synthesis (eg asbestos, bromine, ethanol, lead, etc.)
• Formulation is an alloy, a mixture or solution of two or more materials (eg paint, formaldehyde solution, etc.)
• Products are materials / substances or formulations that are acquired or formed during the production process. These properties determine the function lebik product than its chemical composition
Hazardous materials are defined above have one or more properties marked with hazard symbols
Hazard symbols are pictograms with black marks on an orange background, hazard categories for materials and formulations marked with hazard symbols, which are divided into
• Risk of fire and explosion (physical-chemical properties)
• Health risks (toxicological properties) or
• The combination of the two.
The following explains symbols of danger and peril including notation letter code (note: letter code is not part of the hazard symbols)
Inflammable substances (flammable material)
Combustible materials consist of sub-groups of explosives, oxidising, extremely flammable materials (extremely flammable substances), and the material is extremely flammable (highly flammable substances). Flammable materials (flammable substances) also belongs to the category of flammable material (Inflammable substances) but the use of hazard symbols is not required for these materials.
Explosive (explosive nature)
1.Huruf code: E
Materials and formulations marked with the notation danger "explosive" can explode with a punch / impact, friction, heat, flame and other ignition sources even without atmospheric oxygen. The explosion will be triggered by a reaction of the materials. High energy released by the propagation of waves moving air very quickly. Risk of explosion may be determined by the method given in the Law for the Explosive Substances
In the laboratory, a strong oxidizing compound mixed with combustible materials or reducing substances can explode. For example, nitric acid can cause an explosion if it reacts with some solvents such as acetone, diethyl ether, ethanol, etc.. Production or working with explosive materials requires knowledge and practical experience as well as specific safety. When working with these materials quantity should be kept as small as / as little as possible both for handling and inventory / spare.
R-phrases for explosive materials: R1, R2 and R3
As an example for the material described above is 2,4,6-trinitro toluene (TNT)
Oxidizing (oxidizing)
2.Huruf code: O
Ingredients and formulations marked with the notation danger "oxidizing" usually is not flammable. But when in contact with combustible materials or flammable material so they can significantly increase the risk of fire. In many ways they are inorganic materials such as salt (salt-like) with strong oxidizing properties and organic peroxides.
Phrase-R for oxidising agents: R7, R8 and R9
Examples of such materials are potassium chlorate and potassium permanganate also concentrated nitric acid.
Extremely flammable (highly flammable)
3.Huruf code: F +
Ingredients and formulations marked with the notation danger "extremely flammable" is a liquid that has a very low flash point (below 0o C) and low boiling point with initial boiling point (below +35 oC). Highly flammable materials such as gas with air to form an explosive mixture is under normal conditions.
Phrase-R for extremely flammable materials: R12
Examples of materials with such properties is diethyl ether (liquid) and propane (gas)
Highly flammable (highly flammable)
4.Huruf code: F
Ingredients and formulations marked with the notation danger 'highly flammable' is subject to self-heating and ignition under normal atmospheric conditions, or they have a low flash point (below +21 oC). Some of the material is highly flammable gas producing extremely flammable under the influence of moisture. The materials can be hot in air at room temperature without additional energy supply and ultimately burned, also labeled as 'highly flammable'
Phrase-R for extremely flammable materials: R11
Examples of materials with properties such as acetone and sodium metal, which is often used in laboratories as a solvent and drying agent.
Flammable (flammable)
5.Huruf code: none
No hazard symbols required to label ingredients and formulations with notation danger 'flammable'. Materials and liquid formulations that have a flash point between +21 ° C and +55 ° C is classified as combustible (flammable)
Phrase-R to combustible materials: R10
Examples of materials with such properties as turpentine oil.
Materials hazardous to health
Grouping materials and formulations according toksikologinya properties consist of acute and long-term effects, not depending on whether the effect is caused by the repetition of a single, long-term or exposition. An important parameter to assess the acute toxicity of a substance is its price LD50 determined in experiments on test animals. Price reflects a lethal dose LD50 in mg per kg of body weight will cause the death of 50% of the test animals, including 14 days after one single administration. Due to the design of the test can distinguish between expenditures (LD50 oral uptake and digestion through the gastrointestinal system, seta dermal LD50 for uptake (expenses) through the skin).
Besides these two there is also a concentration lethal (lethal concentration) LC50 pulmonary (inhalation), which reflects the concentration of a pollutant in air (mg / L) that would cause the death of 50% of the test animals within the 14 days after 4 hours of exposition.
The term hazardous to health, including sub-groups are highly toxic material (very toxic substances), toxic agents (toxic substances) and hazardous materials (Harmful substances)
Very toxic (highly toxic)
6.Huruf code: T +
Materials and formulations marked with the notation danger 'very toxic' can cause acute or chronic health damage and even death at very low concentrations into the body by inhalation, through the mouth (ingestion), or contact with the skin.
A highly toxic substance categorized if they meet the following criteria:
Oral LD50 (rat) ≤ 25 mg / kg body weight
Dermal LD50 (rat or rabbit) ≤ 50 mg / kg body weight
Pulmonary LC50 (rat) for aerosol / dust ≤ 0.25 mg / L
Pulmonary LC50 (rat) for gases / vapors ≤ 0.50 mg / L
Phrase-R for highly toxic materials: R26, R27 and R28
Examples of materials with properties such as potassium cyanide, hydrogen sulfide, nitrobenzene and atripin
Toxic (poisonous)
7.Huruf code: T
Materials and formulations marked with the notation danger 'toxic' can cause acute or chronic health damage and even death at very low concentrations into the body by inhalation, through the mouth (ingestion), or contact with the skin.
A substance is considered toxic if it meets the following criteria:
Oral LD50 (rat) 25 - 200 mg / kg body weight
Dermal LD50 (rat or rabbit) 50-400 mg / kg body weight
Pulmonary LC50 (rat) for aerosol / dust from 0.25 to 1 mg / L
Pulmonary LC50 (rat) for gas / vapor from 0.50 to 2 mg / L
Phrase-R for toxic: R23, R24 and R25
Materials and formulations which have the
Carcinogenic (R-phrases: R45 and R40)
Mutagenic (R-phrases: R47)
Toxic for reproduction (R-phrases: R46 and R40) or
The properties of the other chronic destructive (R-phrases: R48)
marked with the symbol of danger 'toxic substances' and the code letter T.
Carcinogens can cause cancer or increase the incidence of cancer if it enters the body through inhalation, through the mouth and skin contact.
Examples of materials with such properties as solvents such as methanol (toxic) and benzene (toxic and carcinogenic).
Harmful (dangerous)
8.Huruf code: Xn
Materials and formulations marked with the notation danger 'Harmful' health-damaging risk being if it enters the body through inhalation, through the mouth (ingestion), or contact with the skin.
Considered a hazardous material if it meets the following criteria:
Oral LD50 (rat) 200-2000 mg / kg body weight
Dermal LD50 (rat or rabbit) 400-2000 mg / kg body weight
Pulmonary LC50 (rat) for aerosol / dust 1-5 mg / L
Pulmonary LC50 (rat) for gases / vapors 2-20 mg / L
R-phrases for hazardous substances: R20, R21 and R22
Materials and formulations which have the
Carcinogenic (R-phrases: R45 and R40)
Mutagenic (R-phrases: R47)
Toxic for reproduction (R-phrases: R46 and R40) or
The properties of the other chronic destructive (R-phrases: R48)
were not given toxic notation, will be marked with the symbol danger 'Harmful substances' and Xn-letter code.
Materials suspected of having
carcinogenicity,
also be marked with the symbol danger 'Harmful substances "and code letter Xn,
sensitizing substance (sensitizing substances) (-R Phrases: R42 and R43)
are labeled according to the spectrum of effects is the symbol for danger 'Harmful substances "and code letter or a symbol Xn danger' irritant substances' and the code letter Xi.
Substances suspected to have carcinogenic properties can lead to a high probability of cancer through inhalation, through the mouth (ingestion) or contact with the skin.
Examples of materials that have such properties as the solvent 1,2-etane-1 ,2-diol or ethylene glycol (dangerous) and dichloromethane (dangerous, suspected to be carcinogenic).
Materials that damage the tissue (tissue destroying substances)
'Tissue destroying substances' includes sub-group corrosive materials (corrosive substances) and irritants (irritant substances)
Corrosive (corrosive)
9.Huruf code: C
Ingredients and formulations with the notation 'corrosive' is damaging living tissue. If a substance harmful to health and the skin of test animals or nature can be unpredictable due to the chemical characteristics of the test materials, such as acid (pH <2) and alkaline (pH> 11.5), marked as corrosive.
Phrase-R for corrosive materials: R34 and R35.
Examples of materials with such properties as mineral acids such as HCl and H2SO4 and bases such as NaOH (> 2%).
Irritant (irritating)
10.Huruf code: Xi
Ingredients and formulations with the notation 'irritant' is not corrosive but can cause inflammation when in contact with skin or mucous membranes.
Phrase-R for irritant ingredients: R36, R37, R38 and R41
Examples of materials with properties such as isopropylamine, calcium chloride and dilute acids and bases.
Hazardous materials to the environment
11.Huruf code: N
Ingredients and formulations with the notation 'dangerous for environment' is that it can cause sudden effects or in between a certain time in one or more environmental compartments (water, soil, air, plants, micro-organisms) and causing ecological disruption
R-phrases for hazardous substances to the environment: R50, R51, R52 and R53.
Examples of materials that have properties such as tributyl tin kloroda, tetraklorometan, and petroleum hydrocarbons such as pentane and petroleum gasoline.










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