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13 January 2013

way of farming and cattle farming


1. A BRIEF HISTORY

Cows that exist today came from that encountered in the last Homacodontidae Palaeoceen. The types of primitive are found in the last Plioceen in India. Bali cattle are widely used commodity meat / beef cattle was originally developed in Bali and then spread to several areas such as: West Nusa Tenggara (NTB), Sulawesi.

2. LIVESTOCK CENTER

Cattle Bali, Ongole cattle, cows PO (hybrid ongole) and Madura cattle is widely available in the West Nusa Tenggara (NTB), Sulawesi. Aberdeen angus cow types are common in Scotland.
Simental cows are common in Switzerland. Brahman cattle from India and has been developed in America.

3. J E N I S

The types of beef cattle are found in Indonesia today are native to Indonesia and beef cattle imported. Of the types of beef cattle that each has distinctive characteristics, both in terms of its outward forms (body size, coat color) or from genetic (growth rate).

Indonesia cows were used as a source of meat is beef Bali, Ongole cattle, cows PO (hybrid ongole) and Madura cattle. In addition, cows
Aceh are widely exported to Malaysia (Pinang). Of the existing population of beef cattle, which are considered evenly spread, respectively: Bali cattle, cows PO, Madura and Brahman.

Bali cattle reach 300-400 kg body weight. 56.9% and the percentage karkasnya. Aberdeen angus cows (Scotland) black fur, not horned, body shape flat as a board and solid flesh, the weight age of 1.5 years to reach 650 kg, making it more suitable to be kept as beef cattle. Cattle Simental (Switzerland) small horned, fur light brown or yellowish. At the front, knee down and kind of wattle, white tail tip.

Brahman cattle (from India), has been developed in America. Percentage karkasnya 45%. The specialty of beef is not too selective about the feed given, the type of feed (grass and feed supplement) will eaten anything, including bad food though. Beef cattle are also more resistant to ticks and mosquito bites and heat resistant.

4. BENEFITS

Maintaining beef cattle is very beneficial because not only produce meat and milk, but also produce manure and
labor. Cattle can also be used meranih carts, cow dung also have economic value, as it includes organic fertilizer is needed by all plants. Cow manure can be a source of nutrients that can improve soil structure so that it becomes more loose and fertile.

All cattle organs can be used, among other things:

1) Leather, as industrial materials handbags, shoes, belts, hats, jackets.

2) The bones, can be processed into the adhesive / glue, bone meal and crafts

3) Horn, used as craft materials such as combs, wall hangings and many benefits of cow for the benefit of man.

5. LOCATION REQUIREMENTS

An ideal location to build the enclosure is an area that is located far enough away from residential areas but easily accessible by vehicle. Cages should be separate from the house with a minimum distance of 10 meters and the sun should be able to penetrate the court of the cage and close to agricultural land. Making can be done in groups in the middle of rice fields.

6. TECHNICAL GUIDELINES CULTIVATION

6.1. Preparation Facility and Equipment

Cages can be made in the form of single or double, depending on the number of cattle owned. In the single-cage type, placement cows performed on a single line or a range, while the dual-type cage placement conducted in two ranks facing each other or conflicting. Between the two series are made to line the street.

Making enclosure for the purpose of (kereman) usually singular when the capacity of the livestock kept only slightly. However, if the activity is intended for commercial cattle production, the size of the cage should be wider and larger so it can accommodate more number of cattle.

Floor of the cage should be kept clean to prevent cultivated a variety of diseases. The floor is made of solid ground or cement, and easy to clean from manure. Ground floor covered with hay as the base enclosure warm.

All parts of the enclosure and the equipment never be used disuci hamakan first with a disinfectant, such as creolin, lysol, and other bahanbahan.

Cage size for an adult bull is 1.5 x2 x2 m or 2.5 m, while for adult cows was 1.8 m and x2 for x1 calf is 1.5 m per cow, with a height of above + 2-2, 5 m from the ground. Temperatures around the cage 25-40 degrees C (average 33 degrees C) and humidity of 75%. What maintenance can be performed in the lowlands (100-500 m) to the highlands (> 500 m).

Cage for breeding cattle should be clean and dry. Making the cage should consider some basic requirements which include construction, location, size and equipment enclosures.

1) Construction and location of the cage
Cowshed construction as the wooden house. The roof of the cage-shaped buds and one / both sides sloping. The floor is made of solid cage, higher than the surrounding ground and slightly tilted toward gutter outside the cage. The point is that the water that looks, including urinary
cow easily flow out of the cage floor remains dry.
Construction materials are cage logs / boards coming
of solid wood. Cowshed should not be closed, but rather
open for air circulation inside smoothly.
Included in the series is the provision of feed cattle drinking water
net. Given drinking water ad libitum, means must be available and
should not be running out any time.
Cages should be separate from the house with a minimum distance of 10 meters
and the sun should be able to penetrate the court enclosure. Manufacture
cowshed can be done in groups in the field / fields.

2) Size Cage
Before making the cage should be taken into account first the number of cows to be maintained. Cage size for an adult bull is 1.5 x 2 m. As for the adult female cow is 1.8 x 2 m and to a calf is 1.5 x1 m.

3) Supplies Cages
Included in the equipment enclosure is where food and drink, which should be made outside of the cage, but still below the roof. The feed is a bit higher so the feed is not trampled / mixed dirt. Drinking water should be made permanent cement tanks and slightly higher than the surface of the floor.

Thus dung and urine are not mixed in it. Other equipment that needs to be provided is a broom, brush, shovel, sickle, and a place to bathe cows. All equipment is to clean the cage so the cow protected from disease and can be used to bathe cows.

6.2. Nurseries
Terms of livestock to be considered are:

1) Having an ear mark, meaning the calf has been registered and full pedigree.

2) His eyes were bright and clean.

3) There are no signs are needed, interrupted breathing and mucus out of the nose is not.

4) nails do not feel hot when touched.

5) Not seen any external parasites on the skin and fur.

6) There are no signs of diarrhea in the tail and anus.

7) No sign of skin damage and hair loss.

8) navel clean and dry, if still soft and fluffy not indicate that the calf was only about two days.


To produce meat, choose the type of cattle that fit the type of Bali cattle, Brahman cattle, PO cows, and cows that fit and are often found in the local area. The characteristics of the type of beef cattle are as follows:

1) body, large, rectangular / balls.

2) maximum meat quality and easily marketable.

3) relatively fast growth rate.

4) high material efficiency.

6.3. Maintenance
Maintenance includes providing beef cattle feed (feed) and enclosure management. Functions in maintenance of cattle enclosure is:
a) Protect cattle from rain and hot sun.
b) Facilitate the maintenance and monitoring.
c) Maintaining the safety and health of cattle.

Feed is the major energy source for growth and power. The better the quality and the amount of feed given, the greater the power generated and the still greater the energy stored in the form of meat.

1. Sanitation and Preventive Actions
In the intensive care cattle breeder cages so easy to watch, while maintaining an extensive monitoring difficult because the cows are allowed to live freely maintained.

2. Feeding
In general, every cow in need of food in the form of forage. Cows in its infancy, nursing, and so as not to saturate require adequate food in terms of quality and quantity.

Feeding can be done in 3 ways: namely grazing (Pasture fattening), kereman (dry lot faatening) and the combination of the first and second.

Grazing is done by removing the cows in the pasture, which is usually conducted in areas where grazing has quite extensive, and takes about 5-7 hours per day. In this way, it does not require additional rations for cattle feed amplifier has eaten many different types of grass.

Feed can be provided by way of rationing / presented which are known as kereman. Cows were caged and feed derived from the fields, rice / other place. Every day feed cows require approximately 10% of their body weight and feed an additional 1% - 2% of body weight. Additional rations in the form of fine bran or rice bran, coconut, cassava, tofu. given the way in place of grass mixed in the feed. In addition, it can be added as reinforcement mineral form of salt, kapus. Cattle feed in the form of a mixture with a certain amount and the ratio is known as rations.

Feeding cows the best is a combination of grazing and keraman. The case may be, divided by type of forage
into 3 categories, namely fresh forage, dry forage and silage. Kinds of fresh forage is grass, legumes (legu minosa) and other green plants. Good grass for cattle feed is grass, grass king (king grass), leaves turi, leaves lamtoro.

Forage dry from fresh forage accidentally drained in order can be retained longer. Included in the dry forage is rice straw, peanut straw, corn straw, etc.. commonly used in the dry season. Forage is classified as the type of feed which contains crude fiber.

Fresh forage can be preserved silage. In short making of silage can be explained as follows: forage silage sealed to be made, resulting in the fermentation process. The result of the process is called silage. Examples of silage that has been popular in the community such as maize silage, grass silage, rice straw silage, etc..

3. Maintenance Cage
Dirt dumped elsewhere in order to experience the process of fermentation (+1-2 weeks) and turned into manure that has been cooked and good. Cowshed should not be closed (slightly open) for air circulation inside running smoothly.

Clean drinking water should be available at all times. Place food and drink should be made outside of the cage but still below the roof. The feed is a bit higher so the feed is not trampled or mixed with dirt. While drinking water should be made permanent cement tanks and slightly higher than the surface of the floor. Also provide equipment to bathe cows.

7. Pests and diseases

7.1. Disease

1. Anthrax
Cause: Bacillus anthracis is spread through direct contact, food / beverages or inhalation.
Symptoms: (1) high fever, weakness and trembling, (2) respiratory disorders, (3) swollen chest, neck, genitals and full body sores, (4) sometimes dark red blood that comes out through the nose , ears, mouth, anus and vagina, (5) liquid manure and often mixed with blood, (6) spleen swollen and blackish in color.
Control: vaccination, antibiotic treatment, isolate infected cattle and bury / burn the dead cows.

2. Foot and mouth disease (FMD) or disease Apthae epizootica (AE)
Cause: The virus is spread through direct contact with urine, breast milk, saliva and other objects contaminated with germs AE.
Symptoms: (1) the oral cavity, tongue, and soles of the feet or tracak blisters and there is a round protrusion containing a clear liquid, (2) fever or heat, body temperature dropped dramatically, (3) decreased appetite would not even eat at all; (4) excessive saliva out.
Control: vaccination and sick cow isolated and treated separately.

3. Snoring illness / or illness mendekur Septichaema epizootica (SE)
Cause: Pasturella multocida bacteria. Transmitted through contaminated food and drink bacteria.
Symptoms: (1) the scalp and mucous membranes of the tongue swollen, red and blue, (2) neck, anus, vulva and swollen, (3) inflammation of the lungs, intestines and stomach mucous membrane wry and dark red, (4 ) fever and difficult breathing, so similar to the snoring. In severe circumstances, the cow will die in the time between 12-36 hours.
Control: anti-vaccination SE and given antibiotics or sulfa.

4. Inflammatory disease of the nails or nail rot (foot rot)
This disease attacks the cattle are kept in pens, wet and dirty.
Symptoms: (1) initially surrounding the nail slit swollen and cloudy white liquid, (2) skin peeling nails, (3) growing lump that is painless, (4) cows limping and could eventually paralyzed.

7.2. Control
Control of cattle diseases most well keeping the cattle with precautions. Precautions to maintain the health of cattle are:

1. Maintain cleanliness of the cage along with the crockery, including bathing the cows.

2. Sick cow separated by healthy cows and immediate treatment.

3. Mengusakan cage floor is always dry.

4. Regularly check the health of cattle and vaccination as directed.

8. P A N E N

8.1. Main Results
The main result of the cultivation of beef cattle is meat

8.2. By-product
Besides being cultured meat, skin and feces as well as additional results from beef cattle farming.

9. POST-HARVEST

9.1. Stoving
There are some technical principles to be observed in cattle slaughtering in order to obtain good cutting results, namely:

1. Cattle should be laid to rest before cutting

2. Cattle should be clean, free of dirt and other impurities that can contaminate the meat.

3. Slaughter must be done as quickly as possible, and the pain suffered by animals kept to a minimum and blood should come out completely.

4. All processes used must be designed to reduce the number and types of microorganisms contaminants to a minimum.

9.2. Barking
Skinning a cow that had been slaughtered can be done using a blunt knife or a miser so that the skin is not broken. Cowhide
cleaned of meat, fat, blood stains or dirt. If it is clean, with tools skelter made of wood, dried cow skin in an expanded state. Best position for drying in the sun is in a position angle of 45 degrees.

9.3. Spending Offal
After the cow skinned, guts (visceral) or often referred to as offal removed by slashing carcass (meat) in the cow's stomach.

9.4. Cutting Carcass
The end of a beef cattle farm is to produce high berkuantitas carcass quality and meat that can dikonsumsipun recahan high. A cow is considered good if it can produce a carcass for about 59% of the cow's body weight and will eventually gained 46.50% recahan meat can be consumed. So it can be said that from a cow that will not be entirely cut into the carcass and of the whole carcass will not be able to fully produce meat for human consumption. Therefore, to predict the results of carcass and meat to be obtained, an assessment before cattle. In developed countries there is a specification for the classes are (grading) to steer, heifer and cow to be cut.

Carcass split into two parts, namely body carcass carcass left and right parts of the body. The carcass is cut into sub-section neck, quadriceps, hamstrings, ribs and back. Is separated into its component pieces of meat, fat, bones and tendons. Cutting the carcass must have good handling fast so as not to be damaged, especially the quality and hygienitasnya. Because the condition of the carcass affected by the role of microorganisms during the process of spending cuts and offal.

The meat from the carcass has several classes of first-class quality according to location on the body frame. The first quality meat is the meat in the thigh (round) about 20%, the number two is the meat of the lumbar region (loin), approximately 17%, the number three is the back area of ​​meat and ribs (rib) approximately 9%, number four is the area of ​​the shoulder meat (chuck) approximately 26%, the number five is the meat chest area (brisk) approximately 5%, the number six meat abdomen (frank) approximately 4%, the number seven is the meat of the lower rib area to abdomen bottom (plate & suet) approximately 11%, and the number eight is the meat front foot (foreshank) approximately 2.1%. The percentage of the parts of the carcass of the above calculated from carcass weight (100%).

Percentage carcass recahan calculated as follows:

Percentage recahan recahan carcass = Total weight / carcass weight x 100%


The term for the rest of the edible carcass called edible offal, while not edible called inedible offal (such as horns, fur, urinary tract, and other parts that can not be eaten).




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