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13 January 2013

how to raise sheep and Sheep Farming



BRIEF 
Sheep that we know today is the result of human dometikasi history derived from three types of wild sheep, the Mouflon (Ovis musimon) originating from southern Europe and Asia Minor, Argali (Ovis amon) comes from Southeast Asia, Urial (Ovis vignei) derived from Asia.
2.SENTRA FARMS
In Indonesia sheep farm located in the central province of Aceh and North Sumatra. In Aceh in 1993 there were approximately 106 thousand sheep, while in North Sumatra about 95 thousand sheep are farmed. Land used to raise in the region of Aceh based on data Center for Soil and Agro-climate MOA in 1979, covering an area of ​​5.5 million acres ranging from class I to VIII capabilities, while in North Sumatra area of ​​land used about 7 million hectares.
3.J E N I S
Sheep as well as goats, buffaloes and cows, belonging to the family Bovidae. We know some of the nation of sheep that are scattered throughout the world, such as:
1) Village Sheep are sheep originating from Indonesia 2) Lamb Priangan comes from Indonesia and is widely available in Java Barat.3) Fat Tailed Sheep are sheep originating from eastern Indonesia such as Madura, Sulawesi and Lombok.
4) Garut sheep are sheep from crosses triangle between the village sheep, merino sheep tail fat and South Africa.

In Indonesia, especially in Java, there are two well-known nation of sheep, the sheep tail fat which is widely available in Central Java and East Java, and a thin tail sheep are common in West Java
4.MANFAAT
The lamb chops are a source of animal protein and fat. Although it has not been socialized, sheep's milk is a nutritious beverage. Another benefit of raising sheep is the fur can be used as the textile industry.
5. LOCATION REQUIREMENTS
The location for breeding sheep should be in a wide area, the air is fresh and quiet of his surroundings, close to a source of animal feed, have a source of water, away from residential areas and water source population (minimum 10 meters), relatively close to the center of marketing and feed livestock.
6. TECHNICAL GUIDELINES CULTIVATION
6.1. Superior sheep are sheep healthy and not attacked by pests and diseases, comes from the sheep that the percentage of births and high fertility and growth rate and excellent carcass percentage. Thus the sheep business success can not be separated with the selection of the parent / bulls that have properties that baik.Penyiapan Facilities and Equipment
1.Perkandangan
Cages must be strong so that it can be used for a long time, the size according to the number of livestock, clean, earn morning sun, cage ventilation should be sufficient and is higher than the surrounding environment so as not to flood. Cultivated enclosure roof of lightweight material and has a heat absorption is relatively small, for example, from the thatched roof.
Enclosure is divided into several sections according to their function, namely:
(A) Cage parent / principal, the fattened sheep. One requires extensive sheep enclosure 1 x 1 m. (B) stable parent and child, a mother who is breastfeeding her child for 3 months. A mother sheep require 1.5 x 1 m wide and lambs require 0.75 x 1 m wide. (C) stable stud, place the ram to be used as pemacak measuring 2 x 1.5 m / pemancak.

In the sheepfold there should be a place to eat, trough food and beverage, food warehouses, where umbaran (the sheep when the cage cleaned) and the dirt / compost.
Type and model enclosures can essentially be divided into two types, namely:
(A) Stage cage type, cage type has a useful under the dirt container. Pit dug and made lower than the surface of the ground so dirt and urine are not scattered. Alas cage made of wood / bamboo that has been preserved, High stage of the ground is made of at least 50 cm / 2 m for large farms. Trench food should be made tight, so that the food provided is not spilling out.
(B) Type Lemprak cage, cage type is generally used for breeding sheep kereman. Cage lemprak not equipped with a wood base, but reasoned cattle dung and leftover forage. Cage is not equipped with a trough of food, but the baskets were placed on a pedestal of grass. Excessive feeding intentionally, in order to yield a lot of dirt. Dirt will be demolished after about 1-6 months.

6.2.Peyiapan Seeds
Superior sheep are sheep healthy and not attacked by pests and diseases, comes from the sheep that the percentage of births and high fertility and growth rate and excellent carcass percentage. Thus the sheep business success can not be separated with the selection of the parent / bulls that have good properties.
1) Selection of Prospective Parent Seed
a.Calon Parent: 1.5 to 2 years old, not disabled, normal form of stomach, small to medium ears, soft fur, and a good countenance had a great appetite and tail normal mating
b.Calon males: 1.5 to 2 years old, healthy and disabled, normal weight and offspring from the parent who gave birth to children 2 tail / more, bone spurs on the feet and has an equally large testicles and penis to react, has agile movements, facial good and relatively fast growth rate.

2) Reproduction and Marriage
It should be known by the farmers in the management of reproduction is a planned marriage arrangements and timely.
a.Dewasa Sex, when sheep entered a period of the first estrus and ready to carry out the process of reproduction. This phase is achieved when the lambs 6-8 months, both the male and the female.
b.Dewasa body, namely the rams and females are ready to breed. This period was achieved at the age of 10-12 months in females and 12 in males. The marriage will be successful if the ewes in a state of lust.

3) Birth Process
Long gestation for sheep is 150 days (5 months). Before the birth of a lamb, the cage should be clean and dry base. Material for the base enclosure can be burlap sacks / dry straw. Drugs that need to be prepared is jodium the cut applied to the umbilical cord.
A sheep who will give birth can be known through the physical and behavioral changes as follows:
a.Keadaan decreased stomach and hips sag.
b.Buah milk and nipples swell filled.
c.Alat genital swelling, reddish colored and moist.
d.Ternak always anxious and poor appetite.
e.Sering pee.
The birth process lasted 15-30 minutes, if 45 minutes after the rupture, the unborn lamb, birth need to be helped. New-born lamb was cleaned with a dry cloth in order to breathe. Usually a sheep will lick her to dry and clean.

6.3.Pemeliharaan
1) Sanitation and Preventive Actions
Environmental sanitation to do with cleaning cages and equipment from the nest of insects and pests. cage especially the feeding and watering washed and dried every day. It should be done cleaning the weeds around the cage. Cattle pens cleaned once a week.
2) Control of Disease
Sheep with the disease can be treated and separated from the healthy. Perform preventive vaccination by injecting a healthy sheep.
3) Animal Care
Parent bunting given good food and regular, the airy space and separated from other sheep. parent who had just given birth were given a drink and food forage that has been mixed with other food reinforcement. In addition, a sheep must be bathed. Lamb (Cempe) new born, cleaned and selected foods. Cempe were weaned to note. quality feed in the form of slurry is not more than 0.20 kg once daily.
Adult animal care include:
a.Memandikan cattle regularly at least once a week. by way of brushed and soaped. in the morning, and then dried under the sun in the morning.
b.Mencukur Fur
Sheep shearing with ordinary scissors / razor this. performed at least 6 months and be left thick fleece of approximately 0.5 cm. Previous lamb fur washed so generated can be used as textile materials. The fourth leg of lamb tied up so as not to run when sheared. Shearing starts from the belly forward and in line with the back of sheep
c.Merawat and Cut Nails
Cutting nails cut lamb 4 months with a machete, wood chisels, knives rantan, knife or nail clippers.

4) Feeding
Food nutrients needed by cattle sheep and absolutely should be available in sufficient quantity are carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals and water. Feedstuffs for sheep generally classified into 4 groups as follows:
a.Golongan Grasses, such as elephant grass, Bengal, Brachiaria, kings, mexico and natural grass.
b.Golongan Nuts, such as leaves lamtoro, turi, gamal peanut leaves, leaf beans, albisia, calothyrsus, Gliricidia and siratro.
c.Hasil Agricultural Waste, such as jackfruit leaves, hibiscus leaves, dadap leaves, hibiscus leaves, banana leaves, corn leaves, cassava leaves, sweet potato leaves and banyan leaf.
d.Golongan Food amplifier (Concentrate), such as bran, corn Karing, salt, coconut meal, fish meal, soybean meal, tofu, soy and cottonseed oilcake.

Feed for sheep is a mixture of the above four groups of age-adjusted. The proportion of the mixture is:
a.Ternak adult: 75% grass, leaves 25%
b.Induk bunting: 60% grass, leaves 40%, concentrate 2-3 cups
c.Induk breastfeeding: 50% grass, leaves 50% and konsentrat2-3 cups
d.Anak before weaning: 50% grass, leaves 50%
e.Anak weaning off: 60% grass, leaves and concentrates 40% from 0.5 to 1 cup

While the dose of rationing for lamb growth are as follows:
1.4 kg body a.Bobot: grass / forage = 180 kg / day, increased weight = 50 g / day
1.4 kg body b.Bobot: grass / forage = 340 kg / day, increased weight = 100 g / day
1.4 kg body c.Bobot: grass / forage = 410 kg / day, increased weight = 150 g / day
2.9 kg body d.Bobot: grass / forage = 110 kg / day, increased weight = 50 g / day
2.9 kg body e.Bobot: grass / forage = 280 kg / day, increased weight = 100 g / day
2.9 kg body f.Bobot: grass / forage = 440 kg / day, increased weight = 150 g / day
4.3 kg body g.Bobot: concentrate = 160 g / day, increased weight = 50 g / day
4.3 kg body h.Bobot: concentrate = 320 g / day, weight gain = 100 g / day
4.3 kg body i.Bobot: concentrate = 470 g / day, weight gain = 150 g / day
5.8 kg body j.Bobot: concentrate = 100 g / day, weight gain = 50 grams / day
5.8 kg body k.Bobot: concentrate = 260 g / day, weight gain = 100 g / day
5.8 kg body l.Bobot: concentrate = 410 g / day, weight gain = 150 g / day
7.2 kg body m.Bobot: concentrate = 60 g / day, increased weight = 50 g / day
7.2 kg body n.Bobot: concentrate = 180 g / day, weight gain = 100 g / day
7.2 kg body o.Bobot: concentrate = 340 g / day, weight gain = 150 g / day
8.7 kg body p.Bobot: concentrate = 50 g / day, increased weight = 50 g / day
8.7 kg body q.Bobot: concentrate = 110 g / day, weight gain = 100 g / day
8.7 kg body r.Bobot: concentrate = 260 g / day, weight gain = 150 g / day
10.1 kg body s.Bobot: concentrate = 40 g / day, increased weight = 50 g / day
10.1 kg body t.Bobot: concentrate = 280 g / day, weight gain = 100 g / day
10.1 kg body u.Bobot: concentrate = 440 g / day, weight gain = 150 g / day

5) Giving Vaccinations and Drugs
Vaccination can be done every six months to do the vaccination by injecting the drug into the body of the sheep. Vaccination began in lambs (cempe) when it has 1 month old, and then repeated at the age of 2-3 months. Vaccinations are usually given is the type of vaccine spores (Max Sterne), Serum anti-anthrax, AE vaccine, and vaccine SE (Septichaemia Epizootica).
6) Maintenance Enclosure
Maintenance includes cleaning cages menimal sheep poop once a week, remove waste to a waste disposal, cleaning the floor or mat, and liming enclosures for spraying disinfectant.

7.HAMA AND DISEASE
1) Diarrhea Disease
Cause: Escherichia coli bacteria that attack lambs 3 months old.
Treatment: antibiotics and sulfa given by mouth.
2) inflammatory disease Navel
Cause: cutting tools are not sterile navel or umbilical cord is contaminated by the bacteria Streptococcus, Staphyloccus, Escherichia coli and Actinomyces necrophorus. Age sheep attacked cempe usually 2-7 days of age.
Symptoms: swelling around the navel and the sheep will be in pain when touched.
Treatment: with antibiotics, sulfa and navel compressed rivanol solution (disinfectant)
3) Smallpox Mouth Disease
This disease attacks the sheep up to the age of 3 months.
Symptoms: cempe afflicted can not suck its mother's milk for sore throat that can lead to death.
Control: with sulfa like Sulfapyridine, Sulfamerozine, or pinicillin.
4) Disease Titani
Cause: deficiency Deficiency Calcium (Ca) and manganese (Mn). Sheep attacked usually 3-4 months old.
Symptoms: restless sheep, raised on some muscle spasms throughout the body even to the disease can be treated by injecting a solution of Genconos calcicus and Magnesium.
5) inflammatory disease Limoah
This disease attacks the sheep at all ages, it is very dangerous, fast transmission and can be transmitted to humans
Cause: the bacteria Bacillus anthracis.
Symptoms: Body temperature rises, from the nostrils and anal discharge mixed with blood, running fast pulse, body shaking, and loss of appetite.
Control: by injecting antibiotics Pracain penncillin G, with a dose of 6000-10000 for / kg body weight of sheep infected.
6) Foot and Mouth Disease
This infectious disease can cause death in sheep, and the attack is on the mouth and nails.
The cause: a virus and attacks all ages in sheep
Symptoms: diselaputi blister mouth mucus.
Control: cleaning the blister in the mouth with a solution of Aluminium Sulphate 5%, while the nails done by soaking your nails in a solution of formalin or 4% sodium carbonate.
7) Disease Snoring
Cause: The bacterium Pasteurella multocida.
Symptoms: sheep decreased appetite, can cause swelling in the neck and chest. All ages can develop the disease of sheep, sheep stricken look swollen and sticking out his tongue, mouth gaping, frothy mucus and difficulty sleeping.
Control: use antibiotics through drinking water or injections.

Diseases Stomach Bloating
Cause: irregular feeding or eating grass that was still covered with dew.
Symptoms: sheep stomach enlarges and can cause death. For that cultivated a regular feeding schedule and the amount is not grazed too early
Control: give sugar brewed with acid, then lamb leg lifted up to the front of the gas out.
9) Diseases of Parasitic Worms
All ages can be affected sheep disease.
Cause: worm Fasciola gigantica (liver flukes), Neoascaris vitulorum worms (roundworms), worm Haemonchus contortus (stomach worms), Thelazia rhodesii worms (worms eye).
Control: given Zanil or Valbazen given by
drinks, can also be given de-worming as piperazine dose 220
mg / kg body weight of the sheep.
10) Disease Scabies
An infectious disease that attacks the sheep skin at any age. As a result of this disease of sheep production decreases, the skin becomes ugly and reduced selling sheep.
Cause: parasites such as fleas called Psoroptes ovis, Psoroptes ciniculi and Chorioptes bovis. Symptoms: sheep body weak, thin, decreased appetite and happy scratching his body. Scabies can affect the face, ears, stomach backs, feet and base of the tail.
Control: by applying a 10% Benzoas bensilikus wound, spraying sheep with Coumaphos 0.05 to 0.1%.
11) Disease Dermatitis
Is a contagious skin disease in sheep, attacking seeds sheep skin.
The cause: a virus of the Pox virus sub-group and attack all ages of sheep.
Symptoms: inflammation of the skin around the mouth, eyelids and genitals. At the nursing mother looks inflammation of the mammary gland.
Control: use ointments or Jodium tinctur the wound.
12) Milk Gland Disease
The disease is common in adult sheep were feeding, so that the milk they sucked cempe contaminated.
Cause: the breastfeeding mother sheep udder not Ruti cleaned.
Symptoms: sheep udder swelling, when touched tersa hot, fever and high body temperature, lack of appetite, produsi mother's milk is reduced.
Control: antibiotic medicines administration through drinking water.

In general, control and prevention of disease occurring in sheep can be done by:
a) Maintain the cleanliness of the cage, and replace the base enclosure.
b) Controlling lamb (cempe) as often as possible.
c) Providing nutrition and foods containing reinforcing minerals, calcium and manganese.
d) Provide schedule and amount of food, feed Forage should be freshly cut before being given first withered.
e) Avoid abusive or feeding forage contaminated snails and before dibrikan sebainya washed.
f) Good sanitation, frequent bathing and shaving sheep.
g) Management of the cage set up nicely.
h) Conduct vaccination and treatment of the sick sheep.
8. P A N E N
8.1. Main Results
The main result is the carcass of sheep farming (meat)
8.2. By-product
Additional results from sheep farming is fur (wool) which can be made as a textile material.
8.3. Cleaning
Before the cut cattle cleaned by washing the feet of the lamb and sprayed water over the head of cattle produced carcasses that are not contaminated by bacteria and dirt.
9. POST-HARVEST
9.1. Stoving
There are some technical principles that must be observed in order to obtain results lamb cuts are good cuts, namely:
1) Sheep must be rested before slaughter
2) Sheep must be clean, free of dirt and other impurities that can contaminate the meat.
3) Cutting livestock should be done as quickly as possible, and the pain suffered by the livestock kept to a minimum and blood should come out completely.
4) All the processes used should be designed to reduce the number and types of microorganisms contaminants to a minimum.

9.2. Barking
Skinning a sheep that had been slaughtered can be done using a blunt knife or a miser so that the skin is not broken. Sheepskin cleaned of meat, fat, blood stains or dirt. If it is clean, with tools made of wood skelter, sheepskin dried in an expanded state. Best position for drying in the sun is in a position angle of 45 degrees.
9.3. Spending Offal
After the lamb flayed, the entrails (visceral) or often referred to as offal removed by slashing carcass (meat) on the sheep's stomach.
9.4. Cutting Carcass
Carcass split into two parts, namely body carcass carcass left and right parts of the body. The carcass is cut into sub-section neck, quadriceps, hamstrings, ribs and back. Is separated into its component pieces of meat, fat, bones and tendons. Cutting the carcass must have good handling fast so as not to be damaged, especially the quality and hygienitasnya. Because the condition of the carcass affected by the role of microorganisms during the process of spending cuts and offal.

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